Palmer classification of TFCC abnormalities

Dr Craig Hacking and Dr David Dang et al.

Palmer classification for triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) abnormalities is based on the cause, location and degree of injury 1:

Class 1 - traumatic injury
  • a: central perforation of the triangular fibrocartilage (TFC) disc proper
  • b: ulnar avulsion with or without distal ulnar fracture
    • may involve the proximal or distal lamina (foveal and styloid attachment, respectively), or both
  • c: distal avulsion of the TFCC involving ulnotriquetral and ulnolunate ligaments
  • d: radial avulsion of the TFC disc proper +/- sigmoid notch fracture
Class 2 - degenerative injury (ulnocarpal abutment syndrome)
  • a: TFCC wear with thinning/fraying without perforation
  • b: TFCC wear in 2a with lunate, triquetral and/or ulnar chondromalacia
  • c: TFCC perforation +/- 2b chondromalacia
  • d: lunotriquetral ligament perforation +/ features of 2a, 2b and/or 2c
  • e: any or all of above with ulnocarpal arthritis

See also

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Article information

rID: 5191
Tag: wrist
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Palmer classification of triangular fibrocartilage complex abnormalities
  • Palmer classification of TFCC injuries

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Cases and figures

  • Case 1: type 1a
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  • Case 2: type 1d
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  • Case 3: type 1b
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  • Case 4: type 1d
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  • Case 5: type 1b
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  • Case 6: type 1a
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  • Case 7: type 2a
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  • Case 8: type 1d
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  • Case 9: type 2c
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