T2 relaxation refers to the progressive dephasing of spinning dipoles following the 90° pulse as seen in a spin-echo sequence due to tissue-particular characteristics, primarily those that affect the rate of movement of protons, most of which are found in water molecules. This is alternatively known as spin-spin relaxation.
Immediately after the 90° pulse, all the spinning dipoles within the slice are exactly in phase. Almost immediately, they lose coherence as some spin slightly faster than the others. This dephasing effect has been likened to the opening of a chinese fan. The result is that the Mxy component of the magnetic vector decreases exponentially as a function of the T2 time constant. See the figure to the right showing exponential drop of signal from T2 relaxation.
Factors affecting T2 relaxation
Each magnetic dipole exists in a micro environment unique to the tissue where it belongs. In all tissues, there exist tiny magnetic fields (~1mT) generated by the spinning hydrogen nuclei (protons). T2 relaxation occurs in a varying local magnetic field when there is transfer of energy between dipoles facing parallel and antiparallel to the external magnetic field, flipping each other in opposite directions. This rate of flipping or transfer of energy between spins or dipoles increases as the frequency of the variation of the local magnetic field approaches the Larmor frequency. This is related to the rate of rotation and translation of the water molecule or adjacent dipoles. The dipole-dipole interaction is also increased the strength of the local field which is dependent on the proximity of the adjacent dipoles.
In pure water T2 is long, about 3-4 seconds because water molecules move considerably faster than the Larmor frequency. The rapid motion results in the T1 and T2 being about the same in pure water.
In solutions of macromolecules and tissues the relaxation rate is much faster, i.e., the T2 time is shorter. This is related in part to the slower motion or protons both in macromolecules as well as water molecules attracted to the surface of the macromolecule. This slower motion is closer to the Larmor frequency. Examples of T1 and T2 in biological tissues include: CSF, T1=1.9 seconds and T2=0.25 seconds; brain white matter, T1=0.5 seconds and T2=0.07 seconds (70 msec).
As motion and therefore the local field fluctuations decreases below the Larmor frequency in tissues and tendons, dipoles that are aligned with the main magnetic field start contributing to T2 relaxation by causing local variations in precession rate. The resulting short T2 time causes tendons and other semi-solid tissues to appear dark on T2-weighted images. Long T2 fluids with few macromolecules such as water, urine and CSF will appear bright on T2-weighted images.
Loss of signal and darkness on T2-weighted images in cortical bone, teeth, calculi is primarily a result of little water (low proton density) unlike tendons and ligaments 3. The water that is in bone, teeth and calculi would mostly be bound as to collagen and would have a very short T2 time constant and appear dark. There is also mild susceptibility differences between bone and soft tissue that could contribute to a dark appearance at interfaces, as between marrow and bone trabecula. This is seen in particular on gradient echo images.
Note: T2 relaxation is not to be confused with T2* which is a broader phenomenon and includes static magnetic field effects in addition to the tissue-characteristic T2 relaxation.
- MRI (introduction)
- MR physics
- MR hardware
- signal processing
MRI pulse sequences (basics | abbreviations | parameters)
- spin echo sequences
- inversion recovery sequences
- gradient echo sequences
- fat-suppressed imaging sequences
- diffusion weighted sequences (DWI)
- derived values
- CSF flow studies
- susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI)
- saturation recovery sequences
- echo-planar pulse sequences
- metal artifact reduction sequence
- T1 rho
- spiral pulse sequences
- MR angiography (and venography)
MR spectroscopy (MRS)
- Hunter's angle
- lactate peak: resonates at 1.3 ppm
- lipids peak: resonate at 1.3 ppm
- alanine peak: resonates at 1.48 ppm
- N-acetylaspartate (NAA) peak: resonates at 2.0
- glutamine-glutamate peak: resonate at 2.2-2.4 ppm
- gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) peak: resonate at 2.2-2.4 ppm
- 2-hydroxyglutarate peak: resonates at 2.25 ppm
- citrate peak: resonates 2.6 ppm
- creatine peak: resonates at 3.0 ppm
- choline peak: resonates at 3.2 ppm
- myo-inositol peak: resonates at 3.5 ppm
- functional MRI
- MR fingerprinting
- MR hardware and room shielding
- MR software
- patient and physiologic motion
- tissue heterogeneity and foreign bodies
- Fourier transform and Nyqvist sampling theorem
MR contrast agents
- gadolinium ion
- extracellular MRI contrast agents
- hepatobiliary MRI contrast agents
- intravascular (blood pool) MRI contrast agents
- gastrointestinal MRI contrast agents
- tumor-specific MRI contrast agents
- reticuloendothelial MRI contrast agents
- contrast agent safety
- MR safety
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