Endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium
This 40 year old obese woman presented to her family doctor with a history 'menorrhagia' (of uncertain duration). A transvaginal ultrasound showed a mildly thickened endometrium but was essentially unhelpful. She proceeded to a uterine curettage, which yielded 18 grams of haemorrhagic tissue.
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There is no normal endometirum within these images.
Most of the specimen is composed of endometrial tissue displaying tightly packed, back-to-back, complex glands with scant intervening stroma that contains occasional clusters of foamy histiocytes. Cells lining these glands show mild cytological atypia with nuclear stratification, mildly enlarged hyperchromatic nuclei and scattered mitotic figures.
A smaller component of the specimen, however, is composed of solid sheets and occasional glands within a desmoplastic stroma, showing prominent necrosis and apoptotic debris. Tumour cells in these areas are display marked cytological atypia, with large vesicular, pleomorphic nuclei, prominent nucleoli, scant cytoplasm and abundant mitotic figures. There is focal necrosis.
Immunohistochemistry was performed on a section containing poorly differentiated areas with the following results:
- Broad spectrum cytokeratin AE1/AE3: Positive
- ER and PR: Negative
- CK5: Focal, weak
- P53: Weak, patchy
- Chromogranin and Synaptophysin: Negative
Poorly differentiated areas made up less than 5% of the overall specimen examined. An undifferentiated component was considered, however, these areas retained focal glandular architecture and displayed strong cytokeratin positivity; similarly, P53 staining showed a negative result (i.e. weak and patchy staining), rendering 'serous adenocarcinoma' a less likely diagnosis.
Overall, whilst this is an uncommon finding, this case was thought best considered to represent a predominantly Grade 1 endometrioid adenocarcinoma (villoglandular pattern), with very focal high grade areas (Grade 3).
Other sections in this case showed endometrial fragments displaying proliferative endometrium with complex atypical hyperplasia, which is in keeping with the hyperplasia/atypia to carcinoma tumour pathway seen in endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
- Bartosch C1, Manuel Lopes J, Oliva E, Endometrial carcinomas: a review emphasizing overlapping and distinctive morphological and immunohistochemical features; Adv Anat Pathol. 2011 Nov;18(6):415-37 PubMed Citation