Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

337 results found
Article

2001 WHO classification of hepatic hydatid cysts

The 2001 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of hepatic hydatid cysts is used to assess the stage of hepatic hydatid cyst on ultrasound and is useful in deciding the appropriate management for it depending on the stage of the cyst. This classification was proposed by WHO in 2001 and a...
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2008 WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues

The 2008 WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues is at the time of writing (mid 2016) the most widely used classification system.   Classification Hodgkin lymphoma nodular lymphocyte predominance classical Hodgkin lymphoma nodular sclerosing mixed cellularity ...
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2014 WHO classification of endometrial stromal tumours

Endometrial stromal tumours (EST) constitute <2% of all uterine tumours and <10% of uterine mesenchymal neoplasms 1.  Over the past four decades, EST classification has gone through various modifications, starting from the earliest study by Norris and Taylor 2. This was primarily due to the rar...
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5-tier ACR system of radiologic breast findings

The 5-tier ACR system was a previously used system for classification of radiologic breast findings, proposed by the American College of Radiologists (ACR). It is no longer in widespread use, having been gradually superseded by the new 6-tier BIRADS classification system first published in 1992....
Article

AAST injury scoring scales

The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) injury scoring scales are the most widely accepted and used system of classifying and categorising traumatic injuries. Injury grade reflects severity, guides management, and aids in prognosis. At the time of writing (mid 2016), 32 differe...
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AAST kidney injury scale

The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) renal injury scale 3-4 is the most widely used grading system for renal trauma at the time of writing (late 2016). Severity is assessed according to the depth of renal parenchymal damage and involvement of the urinary collecting system a...
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AAST liver injury scale

The 1994 revision of the AAST (American Association for the Surgery of Trauma) liver injury scale is the most widely used liver injury grading system at the time of writing (late 2016).  Classification grade I haematoma: subcapsular, <10% surface area laceration: capsular tear, <1 cm  parenc...
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AAST spleen injury scale

The 1994 revision of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) splenic injury scale is the most widely used grading system for splenic trauma at the time of writing (late 2016).  Classification grade I subcapsular haematoma <10% of surface area capsular laceration <1 cm depth...
Article

ABC/2

ABC/2 is a fast and simple method for estimating the volume of intracerebral haemorrhage (or any other ellipsoid lesion for that matter) which does not require volumetric 3D analysis or software. Intracerebral haemorrhage volume is an important predictor of morbidity and mortality (and thus tria...
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Abdominal hernia

Abdominal hernias (herniae also used) may be congenital or acquired and come with varying eponyms. They are distinguished primarily based on location and content. 75-80% of all hernias are inguinal. Content of the hernia is variable, and may include: small bowel loops mobile colon segments (s...
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Achondrogenesis 1A

Achondrogenesis type Ia, also known as the Houston-Harris subtype, is a subtype of achondrogenesis. It is an extremely rare lethal skeletal dysplasia (chondrodysplasia) with a characteristic severe disarrangement of endochondral ossification.  Pathology The growth plate cartilage completely la...
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ACR Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (ACR TI-RADS)

ACR TI-RADS is a reporting system for thyroid nodules on ultrasound proposed by the American College of Radiology (ACR) 1. This uses a standardised scoring system for reports providing users with recommendations for when to use fine needle aspiration (FNA) or ultrasound follow-up of suspicious ...
Article

Acute coronary syndrome

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a group of cardiac diagnoses along a spectrum of severity due to the interruption of coronary blood flow to the myocardium, which in decreasing severity are: ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (non-STEMI) unstable...
Article

Agatston score

Agatston score is a semi-automated tool to calculate a score based on the extent of coronary artery calcification detected by an unenhanced low-dose CT scan which is routinely performed in patients undergoing cardiac CT. Due to an extensive body of research, it allows for an early risk stratific...
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Ahlbäck classification of osteoarthritis of the knee joint

This classification was proposed by Ahlback et al in 1968. According to Ahlbäck system, knee joint osteoarthritis is classified as: grade 1: joint space narrowing (less than 3 mm) grade 2: joint space obliteration grade 3: minor bone attrition (0-5 mm) grade 4: moderate bone attrition (5-10...
Article

Alberta stroke program early CT score

The Alberta stroke programe early CT score (ASPECTS) 1 is a 10-point quantitative topographic CT scan score used in patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke. Segmental assessment of the MCA vascular territory is made and 1 point is deducted from the initial score of 10 for every region ...
Article

Allen and Ferguson classification of subaxial cervical spine injuries

Allen and Ferguson classification is used for research purposes to classify subaxial spine injuries. It is based ofn the mechanism of injury and position of the neck during injury. This classification was proposed by Allen and Ferguson in 19823 and at the time of writing (July 2016) remains the ...
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American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons classification of periprosthetic hip fractures

The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons classification of periprosthetic hip fractures divides the femur into three separate regions: level I: proximal femur distally to the lower extent of the lesser trochanter  level II: 10 cm of femur distal to level I  level III: femur distal to level...
Article

Amsterdam criteria for HNPCC

The Amsterdam criteria are used in the diagnosis hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Amsterdam Criteria I Initial description in 1991: > or equal to 3 relatives with colorectal cancer (CRC) > or equal to 1 case in a first degree relative > or equal to 2 successive generation...
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Anderson and D'Alonzo classification of odontoid process fracture

The Anderson and D'Alonzo classification is the most commonly used classification of fractures of the odontoid process of C2. Classification type I rare fracture of the upper part of the odontoid peg above the level of the transverse band of the cruciform ligament usually considered stable...
Article

Ankle fractures

Ankle fractures account for ~10% of fractures encountered in trauma, preceded only in incidence by proximal femoral fractures in the lower limb. They have a bimodal presentation, involving young males and older females. Ankle injuries play a major part in post multitrauma functional impairment t...
Article

Anterior cruciate ligament avulsion fracture

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) avulsion fractures or tibial eminence avulsion fractures are a type of avulsion fracture of the knee. This typically involves separation of the tibial attachment of the ACL to variable degrees. Separation at the femoral attachment is rare 5. Epidemiology It is ...
Article

AO classification of proximal humeral fractures

The AO classification of proximal humeral fractures, along with the Neer classification, is one of the most frequently used systems for classifying proximal humeral fractures.  The AO classification divides proximal humeral fractures into three groups, A, B and C, each with subgroups, and place...
Article

Apgar score

Apgar score was originally described by Virginia Apgar (American anaesthesiologist, 1909-1974) in 1952. Helpfully, her surname is also a useful mnemonic for remembering the 5 factors: each is graded as 0, 1 or 2 with a total possible score of 10. The lower the score the worse the prognosis. Th...
Article

Arnold-Hilgartner classification of haemophilic arthropathy

Arnold-Hilgartner classification is a plain radiograph grading system for haemophilic arthropathy of the knee 1,2: stage 0: normal joint stage I: no skeletal abnormalities, soft-tissue swelling is present stage II: osteoporosis and overgrowth of the epiphysis, no cysts, no narrowing of the ca...
Article

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy diagnostic criteria

For the diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy to be made patients must have either two major criteria, one major and two minor criteria, or four minor criteria. Major criteria global or regional dysfunction and structural alterations: severe dilatation of the right vent...
Article

ASIA impairment scale for spinal injury

The American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) was developed by the American Spinal Injury Association in 2006, and at the time of writing (July 2016), remains the most widely used scale. This scale is part of the ASIA spinal cord injury classification. It divides spinal cord injuries into 5 cat...
Article

Autoimmune pancreatitis (diagnostic criteria)

There are several sets of diagnostic criteria for autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), with some overlap and contradictions. At the time of writing (July 2016), these are the most widely used sets of diagnostic criteria. Asian 2008 AIP diagnostic criteria both criteria I to be fulfilled one criter...
Article

Bado classification of Monteggia fracture-dislocations

The Bado classification is one of the more widely used classifications for Monteggia fracture-dislocations and mainly focuses on the radial component. Four types are recognised and are generally based on the principle that the direction in which the apex of the ulnar fracture points is the same ...
Article

Bähren classification of left varicoceles

Bähren classification of left varicoceles: type 0: no evidence of venous reflux in internal spermatic vein (ISV) type I: single ISV with insufficient or absent valve type II: single ISV with ≥ 2 ostia to renal vein; may be branches to ascending lumbar/retroperitoneal veins IIa: insufficient ...
Article

Bailey classification of second branchial cleft cysts

This classification was initially proposed by Bailey in 1929 2 and remains the most widely used classification system at time of writing (July 2016). Bailey classification of second branchial cleft cysts provides a structure for classing second branchial cleft cysts into four types. It is no lo...
Article

Balthazar score

The Balthazar score is a subscore within the CT severity index (CTSI) for grading of acute pancreatitis.  The CTSI sums two scores: Balthazar score: grading of pancreatitis (A-E) grading the extent of pancreatic necrosis The Balthazar score was originally used alone, but the addition of a sc...
Article

Barkovich classification of focal cortical dysplasia

Barkovich classifies focal cortical dysplasias among the his extensive classification system for malformations of cortical development, distributing them as follows: Type I and type IIb (transcortical dysplasia - Taylor type with balloon cells) as non-neoplastic malformations due to abnormal ne...
Article

Barrow classification of caroticocavernous fistulae

Barrow caroticocavernous fistula classification divides caroticocavernous fistulas into direct (type A) or indirect (types B-D). This classification was proposed by Barrow et al. in 1985 1 and at the time of writing (mid 2016) remains the most widely used system for describing caroticocavernous ...
Article

Bent bone dysplasias (differential)

Bent bone dysplasias are a class of dysplasia included in a 2010 classification of genetic skeletal disorders 1. campomelic dysplasia Stuve-Weidemann dysplasia kyphomelic dysplasias, a diverse class, including congenital bowing of the long bones cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH; metaphyseal d...
Article

Berndt and Harty classification

Berndt and Harty classification is used for osteochondral lesions of the talus. Classification stage I: subchondral bone compression (marrow edema) stage II stage IIa: subchondral cyst stage IIb: incomplete separation of fragment stage III: complete separation but no displacement stage IV...
Article

Bethesda criteria of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer

The Bethesda criteria are an alternative to the Amsterdam criteria for the clinical diagnosis of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC).  Diagnosis of HNPCC is made if any of the following criteria are fulfilled: Amsterdam criteria are met 2 or more HNPCC related malignancies  pa...
Article

Biffl scale for blunt cerebrovascular injury

The Biffl scale or grade illustrates the spectrum of blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) seen on angiography (both CTA and DSA). Some authors refer to the grading scale as the Denver scale, which is not to be confused with the Denver criteria, a set of clinical and risk factors for BCVI.  Class...
Article

BIRADS 0

BIRADS 0 category is one of six from the breast imaging reporting and data system and is used when imaging is incomplete such as: when further imaging or information is required, e.g. compression, magnification, special mammographic views, ultrasound when requesting previous images not availab...
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BI-RADS I

A BIRADS I category under the breast imaging reporting and data system is when no finding is present in an imaging modality (not even a benign finding).
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BI-RADS II

BI-RADS II is a benign category in the breast imaging reporting and data system. A finding placed in this category should have essentially a 100% chance of being benign.  Examples of such lesions include: calcified fibroadenomas multiple secretory calcifications fat-containing lesions such a...
Article

BI-RADS III

BIRADS III is an intermediate category in the breast imaging reporting and data system. While it is usually classified as benign or probably benign, a finding placed in this category should have a very high probability of being benign. The risk of malignancy in a BIRADS III lesion is considered ...
Article

BI-RADS IV

A BIRADS IV lesion under the breast imaging reporting and data system refers to a suspicious abnormality. BIRADS IV lesions may not have the characteristic morphology of breast cancer but have a definite probability of being malignant. A biopsy is recommended for these lesions. If possible, the ...
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BIRADS V

A BIRADS V lesion under the BIRADS (breast imaging reporting and data system) refers to a lesion that is highly suspicious for malignancy, requiring appropriate action to be taken (i.e. biopsy and management as appropriate). BIRADS V lesions have the characteristic morphology of breast cancer wi...
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BIRADS VI

BIRADS VI is a new addition to the ACR (American College of Radiology) BIRAD system. The prior classification system was a 5 tier system. The current system is a 6 tier system. According to the current BIRADS tier, patients with biopsy proven cancer prior to definitive therapy would be category...
Article

Bismuth-Corlette classification

The Bismuth-Corlette classification is a classification system for perihilar cholangiocarcinomas, which is based on the extent of ductal infiltration.   Classification type I limited to the common hepatic duct, below the level of the confluence of the right and left hepatic ducts type II in...
Article

Blumcke classification of focal cortical dysplasia

Blumcke et al. proposed the most recent (2011) 2 and now widely adopted consensus classification system for focal cortical dysplasia, which shares many features with the previously described classifications system by Palmini (2004) and Barkovich (2005).  Unfortunately, as is the case with many ...
Article

Bolger classification of maxillary sinus hypoplasia

The Bolger classification of maxillary sinus hypoplasia proposed by Bolger et al in 1990 1 takes into account associated anomalies of the uncinate process, which are of utmost importance for planning functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Maxillary sinus hypoplasia in itself is asymptomati...
Article

Bone tumours

There are a bewildering number of bone tumours with a wide variety of radiological appearances: bone-forming tumours osteoid osteoma osteoblastoma bone island / enostosis osteopoikilosis osteoma osteosarcoma cartilage-forming tumours enchondroma enchondromatosis-Ollier disease Maffucc...
Article

Borden classification of dural arteriovenous fistulas

The Borden classification of dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVF) groups these lesions into three types based upon the site of venous drainage and the presence or absence of cortical venous drainage. It was first proposed in 1995 1. At the time of writing (July 2016), it is probably less popular ...
Article

Bosniak classification system of renal cystic masses

The Bosniak classification system of renal cystic masses divides renal cystic masses into five categories based on imaging characteristics on contrast-enhanced CT. It is helpful in predicting a risk of malignancy and suggesting either follow up or treatment. Classification Bosniak 1 simple cy...
Article

Bouthillier classification of internal carotid artery segments

Bouthillier et al described (in 1996) 1 a seven segment internal carotid artery (ICA) classification system. It remains the most widely used system for describing ICA segments at the time of writing (mid-2016). There are a few other classifications systems including those proposed by Fisher (19...
Article

Boyden classification of bronchi

The Boyden classification of bronchi refers to the standard nomenclature used to describe bronchopulmonary segmental anatomy. Each lung has 10 segments, however on the left, the first two segments share a common trunk and are hence B1/2. Also given the shared trunk on the left of the lower lobe...
Article

Brachydactyly type A1 (Farabee type)

Brachydactyly type A1 or Farabee type brachydactyly is a subtype of brachydactyly. It was the first human anomaly recognised to have a mendelian pattern of inheritance. The anomaly is characterised by hypoplasia or aplasia of middle phalanges of the second to fifth digits in hands and feet and p...
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Brachydactyly type A2 (Mohr-Wriedt type)

Brachydactyly type A2 or Mohr-Wriedt type is characterised by hypoplasia/aplasia of the second middle phalanx of the index finger, second toe and sometimes little finger. There is radial deviation of the index finger and tibial deviation of the second toe. Pathology Type A2 brachydactyly can b...
Article

Brachydactyly type A3

Brachydactyly type A3 is characterized by shortening of the middle phalanx of the little finger with radial deviation of distal phalanx. Slanting of the distal articular surface of the middle phalanx leads to radial deflection of the distal phalanx. However it is not always associated with clino...
Article

Brachydactyly type A4 (Temtamy type)

Brachydactyly type A4 or Temtamy type is characterised by brachymesophalangy (absent or hypoplastic middle phalanx) of the second and fifth fingers. Other less common features include club foot, clinodactyly, ulnar deviation of the second finger. Pathology Like other brachydactyly, type A4 is ...
Article

Brachydactyly type A5

Brachydactyly type A5 is characterized by absence of the middle phalanges and nail dysplasia with duplicated terminal phalanx of the thumb with resultant bifid thumb. Inheritance is suggested as autosomal dominant.  
Article

Brainstem stroke syndromes

Brainstem stroke syndromes refer to a group of syndromes that occur secondary to occlusion of small perforating arteries of the posterior circulation. The resulted infarction has characteristic clinical picture according to the involved area however, generally there is ipsilateral cranial nerve ...
Article

Brasfield scoring system

The Brasfield scoring system is a scoring system for patients with cystic fibrosis. The score is based on conventional chest radiographic findings and has been reported to have good correlation with pulmonary function. There can be intra- and interobserver variability between radiologists. Ther...
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Breast imaging-reporting and data system (BIRADS)

BIRADS classification is proposed by American College of Radiology, last updated in November 2015, and is widely used classification system at the time of writing this article (July 2016). The BIRADS acronym stands for Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System which is a widely accepted risk ass...
Article

Breast MRI classification flowchart

The breast MRI classification flowchart (or Tree algorithm) is an evidence-based clinical decision rule to distinguish benign from malignant lesions in breast MRI. It incorporates five diagnostic criteria that are mainly consistent with BI-RADS though assigning diagnostic weights. Diagnostic cr...
Article

Capsulolabral insertion classification

There is variation in the relationship between the glenoid labrum and the anterior shoulder joint capsule. This has been divided into three types: Type 1: capsule inserts into the labrum proper Type 2: capsule inserts into the base of the labrum, or within 1cm of the base Type 3: capsule inse...
Article

Cardiomyopathy

Cardiomyopathy is defined as a "disease of the myocardium with associated cardiac dysfunction" 1. It has been classified according to several systems: 1995 WHO/ISFC cardiomyopathy classification system Elliott et al classification system: published by the European Society of Cardiology Working...
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Cardiomyopathy (WHO/ISFC 1995 classification)

Cardiomyopathy classification separates the various cardiomyopathies into several subtypes. A cardiomyopathy is defined as a "disease of the myocardium with associated cardiac dysfunction". It was initially classified according to the 1995 WHO/ISFC system as follows: dilated cardiomyopathy hy...
Article

Castellvi classification of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae

The Castellvi classification is used for lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV): type I: enlarged and dysplastic transverse (at least 19 mm) Ia: unilateral Ib: bilateral type II: pseudoarticulation of the transverse process and sacrum with incomplete lumbarisation/sacralisation; enlargemen...
Article

Catterall classification of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease

The Catterall classification is based on radiographic appearances of the epiphysis and metaphysis visible in osteonecrosis of the femoral head: Stage I bone absorption changes visible in the anterior aspect of the epiphysis of femoral head changes are visible best in frog leg lateral view no...
Article

Central venous catheter

Central venous catheters (CVC) or lines (CVL) refer to a wide range of central venous access devices but can broadly be divided into four categories. They may be inserted by medical, surgical, anaesthetic/ITU, or radiology specialists. Classification peripherally inserted central catheters (PI...
Article

Cervical degenerative spondylosis (grading)

Cervical degenerative changes can be graded using a very old but reliable classification given by Kellgren et al. It is based on findings on a lateral cervical spine radiograph although it can also be applied to MRI evaluation of spine. The key parameters are osteophyte formation, intervertebra...
Article

Cervical spine fracture classification systems

There are several cervical spine fracture classification systems: ​Anderson and D'Alonzo classification (odontoid fracture) Roy-Camille classification (odontoid fracture) Levine and Edwards classification (for traumatic injuries to axis) Allen and Ferguson classification (subaxial spine inju...
Article

Child-Pugh score

The Child-Pugh score is a scoring system to measure the severity of chronic liver disease inclusive of cirrhosis. The intention is to provide a system with which clinicians can objectively communicate about liver function. The score is composed from several categories: total bilirubin, μmol/l ...
Article

Chondromalacia (grading)

Chondromalacia can be divided into 4 grades by MRI, typically using fat saturated proton density sequences. This grading system is the modified Outerbridge grading system, which was devised for arthroscopy initially for assessment of chondromalacia patella, but then modified and extended for all...
Article

Chrispin-Norman scoring system for cystic fibrosis

The Chrispin-Norman score is used to provide a summative assessment of structural lung changes in patients with cystic fibrosis on plain chest radiographs. It is useful to monitor disease progression or treatment response and can be used to compare between different patients in research studies...
Article

Classification of cerebral vascular malformations

Cerebral vascular malformations encompass a large variety vascular lesions which differ in haemodynamics, structure and prognosis. Some can be life threatening (e.g. vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations, arteriovenous malformations) whilst others are almost always incidental and asymptomatic (...
Article

Classification of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)

The new pathological classification of DCIS is based on cytonuclear atypia, degree of necrosis, size, and distance from margin/architecture. Low and intermediate grades DCIS require cytologic, architectural and size criteria to be met but high-grade DCIS requires only cytologic criteria; this is...
Article

Classification of endoleaks

Endoleaks occur when an aneurysmal sac continues to be pressurised despite endoluminal stent placement. Classification There are five types: type I: leak at graft ends (inadequate seal) - most common after repair of thoracic aortic aneurysms 4 Ia: proximal Ib: distal Ic: iliac occluder ty...
Article

Classification of gamekeeper thumb

This classification of gamekeeper's thumb (also known as skier's thumb) was proposed by Hintermann et al 1 in 1993 and is based on whether a fracture is present and whether the injury is stable: type I fracture present, which is non-displaced and stable in flexion typically treated with a spl...
Article

Classification of proximal focal femoral deficiency

Classification of proximal femoral deficiency (PFFD) can be complicated and numerous such classifications have been proposed. For a discussion of the condition refer to the article proximal focal femoral deficiency. One of the simplest and most widely used is that proposed by Aitken 1 which is ...
Article

Classification of sacral fractures

There are several classification systems for sacral fractures, but the most commonly employed are the Denis classification and subclassification systems, and the Isler classification system. These classification systems are important to understand as proper classification can impact management. ...
Article

Classification of spinal meningeal cysts

Spinal meningeal cysts can be classified according to a system published by Nabor et. al 2: type I: extradural meningeal cyst without neural tissue type Ia: extradural spinal arachnoid cyst type Ib: sacral meningocele type II: extradural meningeal cyst containing neural tissue, e.g. Tarlov c...
Article

Classification system for malformations of cortical development

Classification system for malformations of cortical development organises a myriad of conditions according to one of three major underlying  mechanisms: abnormal cell proliferation abnormal neuronal migration abnormal cortical organisation As is to be expected a number of conditions fall out...
Article

Classification system for malformations of the cerebellum

Classification systems for malformations of the cerebellum are varied and are constantly being revised as greater understanding of the underlying genetics and embryology of the disorders is uncovered. A classification proposed by Barkovich et al in 2009 1 divides cerebellar malformations in two ...
Article

Classification system for midline abnormalities of the brain and skull

Classification systems for midline abnormalities of the brain and skull are varied and constantly changing as the underlying embryology and genetics are uncovered. A relatively simple and robust classification system is based on the location of abnormalities, always remembering that midline abno...
Article

Close reduction-internal fixation

Closed reduction-internal fixation, abbreviated to CRIF, refers to the orthopaedic operative management of a fracture (or fracture-dislocation complex) where closed reduction is performed (manipulation) and internal fixation is applied, usually in the form of K-wires to stabilise the fracture. ...
Article

Cochlear anomalies (classification)

Cochlear anomalies are a variety of congenital anomalies which, depending on the exact time at which an insult occurs during embryogenesis, may have different manifestations. Terminology is often used imprecisely leading to confusion not only among clinicians, but also in the literature. Classi...
Article

Cognard classification of dural arteriovenous fistulas

The Cognard classification of dural arteriovenous fistulas correlates venous drainage patterns with increasingly aggressive neurological clinical course. It was first described in 1995 1 and at the time of writing (July 2016) is probably the most widely used classification system for dural arter...
Article

Complex midfacial fracture

Complex midfacial fractures consist of multiple facial fractures that cannot be classified as any of the defined complex facial fracture (e.g. Le Fort fracture, zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture, naso-orbital-ethmoid fracture).
Article

Congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt classification

This congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt classification was proposed by Morgan and Superina in 1994 1: type 1: complete diversion of portal blood into the Inferior vena cava with congenital absence of the portal vein 1a: superior mesenteric vein and splenic vein do not join to form a c...
Article

Congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt classification

This congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt classification was proposed by Park et al in 1990 1: type 1: single large vessel of constant diameter connecting the right portal vein to the Inferior vena cava type 2: localised, peripheral shunt with one or more communications in a single hepa...
Article

Congenital utero-vaginal anomalies

There are many classification systems for congenital utero-vaginal anomalies. These include: Buttram and Gibbons classification 2 American Fertility Society (AFS) classification Modified Rock and Adam - AFS classification Modified Rock and Adam - AFS classification This classification divid...
Article

Conotruncal cardiac anomalies

Conotruncal heart defects are a group of congenital cardiovascular anomalies. They are a leading cause symptomatic cyanotic cardiac disease diagnosed in utero. Epidemiology They may account for up to a fifth of all congenital cardiac anomalies diagnosed prenatally 2. Clinical presentation Du...
Article

Cooke and Newman classification

The Cooke and Newman classification of periprosthetic hip fractures is a modification of the Bethea classification proposed several years earlier. type I explosion type fracture, comminuted around the stem of the implant the prosthesis is always loose and the fracture is inherently unstable ...
Article

Coronoid process fracture

Fractures of the coronoid process of the ulna are uncommon and often occur in association with elbow dislocation.  Pathology Mechanism Fracture of the coronoid process is thought to result from elbow hyperextension with either avulsion of the brachialis tendon insertion, or shearing off by th...

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