Most commonly affects patients aged over 45 years and has a strong male predilection (M:F = 5:1). Maxillary antral carcinomas are more in common in Africa and Asia than in Europe and North America 2.
When symptoms occur, they include, unilateral stiffness and obstruction, blood tinged nasal discharge, proptosis, diplopia, pain resembling toothache and enlargement and ulceration of the palate.
The underlying histology of maxillary antral carcinomas are variable 2:
- squamous cell carcinoma (80%)
- adenoid cystic carcinoma (10%)
- verrucous carcinoma
- malignant melanoma
The exact cause of maxillary antral carcinomas but exposure to wood dust along with EBV and HPV infection have been implicated in its pathogenesis 2.
It appears as irregular radiopacity within the sinus, perforating the sinus wall.
Treatment and prognosis
It includes a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. Prognosis is extremely poor with a 5-year survival of ~10% 1.
- 1. Rajendran A, Sundaram S. Shafer's Textbook of Oral Pathology. Elsevier India. ISBN:B00JXW0R9A. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 2. Warnakulasuriya S, Tilakaratna W. Oral Medicine and Pathology: A Guide to Diagnosis and Management. Jaypee Brothers Medical Pub. ISBN:935025221X. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon