Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,297 results found
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Tulip bulb sign

Tulip bulb sign refers to the characteristic appearance of annuloaortic ectasia as seen on CT angiography. There is symmetric dilatation of the three sinuses of Valsalva, with extension into the ascending aorta and effacement of the sinotubular junction.  It is seen especially in Marfan syndro...
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Transposition of inferior vena cava

Transposition of inferior vena cava (also known as left-sided IVC) refers to a variant course of the inferior vena cava. It is the most common anomaly of IVC and occurs due to persistence of left supracardinal vein. Diagnosis of left sided inferior vena cava is important for: planning of vascu...
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Antonio Egas Moniz

Antonio Egas Moniz (1874-1955) 1 was a pioneering Portuguese neurologist that is notable in radiology history for his development of cerebral angiography in 1927. He is also known as the developer of prefrontal leucotomy (now better known as a lobotomy) ​for which he received a Nobel Prize in 1...
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Amniotic fluid embolism to lung

Amniotic fluid embolism is a special type of pulmonary embolism where the embolus is comprised of amniotic fluid. It can be a highly fatal complication of pregnancy, with an 80% maternal mortality rate.  Epidemiology It is thought to complicate 1/8,000-80,000 pregnancies. Clinical presentatio...
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Pulmonary gas embolism

Pulmonary gas emboli are a specific type of pulmonary emboli that, while rare, should be kept in mind especially with the use of automatic injectors and interventional procedures. The seriousness of the problem will depend on both the amount and rate of injected air in the circulatory system. C...
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Chronic pulmonary embolism

Chronic pulmonary emboli are mainly a consequence of incomplete resolution of pulmonary thromboembolism. Radiographic features CTPA vascular CT signs include direct pulmonary artery signs complete obstruction partial obstruction eccentric thrombus calcified thrombus - calcific pulmonary ...
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Idiopathic dilatation of the pulmonary trunk

Idiopathic dilatation of the pulmonary trunk is a rare congenital anomaly comprising pulmonary trunk enlargement with or without dilatation of the right and left pulmonary arteries. For this diagnosis, exclusion of pulmonary and cardiac diseases (mainly pulmonary valve stenosis) and confirmatio...
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Posterior tibial artery

The posterior tibial artery (PTA) is one of the 2 branches of the tibioperoneal trunk in the lower leg and provides oxygenated blood to the posterior compartments of the leg and plantar surface of the foot. It is accompanied by the posterior tibial vein, along its course. Summary origin: tibio...
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Descending genicular artery

The descending genicular artery (DGA) is one of the arteries of the knee joint and participates in the vascularization of the superomedial structures of the knee including the patella network. Summary location: knee origin: distal femoral artery branches: saphenous, muscular and osteoarticul...
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Descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery

The descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery descends from the lateral aspect of the femoral neck and extends as far as the knee where it provides blood to the patellar network (the complex arterial anastomosis around the knee). Summary origin: lateral circumflex femoral arte...
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Popliteal artery

The popliteal artery is the direct continuation of the superficial femoral artery, at the point where it exits the adductor canal at the adductor hiatus, and passes into the popliteal fossa as the vessel courses posteriorly behind the knee. Summary origin: continuation of the superficial femor...
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Lateral circumflex femoral artery

The lateral circumflex femoral artery is a branch of the profunda femoris artery that arises from its lateral aspect just after the medial circumflex femoral artery. While the medial circumflex runs posteriorly around the femoral neck, the lateral circumflex courses laterally from its origin an...
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Medial circumflex femoral artery

The medial circumflex femoral artery is usually a branch of the profunda femoris that arises close to its origin, usually before the origin of the lateral circumflex femoral artery. It provides blood to the femoral neck and damage to the artery or involvement of it in pathological processes may ...
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Femoral artery

The femoral artery (FA) (TA: arteria femoralis) 6 is the continuation of the external iliac artery (EIA) at the level of the inguinal ligament. As well as supplying oxygenated blood to the lower limb, it gives off smaller branches to the anterior abdominal wall and superficial pelvis.  Terminol...
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Profunda femoris artery

The profunda femoris artery (also known as the deep femoral artery or deep artery of the thigh) is a branch of the femoral artery and is responsible for providing oxygenated blood to the deep structures of the thigh, including the femora. Summary origin: femoral artery main branches medial c...
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Ligamentum venosum

The ligamentum venosum is a fibrous remnant which travels superiorly from the porta hepatis of the liver to the inferior vena cava. It is often obliterated in adults.  In the fetus, it is patent and known as the ductus venosus which shunts blood returning from the placenta in the umbilical vein...
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Ramus intermedius artery

The ramus intermedius is a variant coronary artery resulting from trifurcation of the left main coronary artery 1. It is present in ~20% (range 15-30%) 2-3 of the population. It can have a course similar to the obtuse marginal branches of the left circumflex artery or the diagonal branches of t...
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Disappearing basal ganglia sign

The disappearing basal ganglia sign is one of the early signs of a middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction. It is defined as the loss of delineation of the basal ganglia, due to blurring of their grey-white matter interface and hypoattenuation, consequent to cytotoxic edema at the time of an isc...
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Persistent median artery of the forearm

The persistent median artery of the forearm is an accessory artery that arises from the ulnar artery in the proximal forearm and is a persistent embryological remnant of the axial artery that usually regresses by eight weeks gestation 4. Epidemiology It is present in ~10% (range 2.2-23%) of th...
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Branches of the posterior division of the internal iliac artery (mnemonic)

Mnemonics to remember the three branches of the posterior division of the internal iliac artery include: I Love Sex PILLS G Mnemonics I Love Sex I: iliolumbar artery L: lateral sacral artery S: superior gluteal artery PILLS G P: posterior division of the internal iliac artery IL: iliol...
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Proximal brachial artery

The proximal brachial artery represents the initial portion of the brachial artery as it arises as a continuation of the axillary artery at the inferior edge of teres major. There is no anatomic difference between the proximal and more distal brachial artery. However, the functional response to...
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Ovarian vein syndrome

Ovarian vein syndrome is a relatively rare condition where a dilated ovarian vein (ovarian venous varix) causes notching, dilatation, or obstruction of the ureter. This is usually secondary to varicosities of the ovarian vein or ovarian vein thrombosis and occurs at the point where the ovarian v...
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Axillary artery

The axillary artery represents the continuation of the subclavian artery and is a major artery of the upper limb. Summary origin: continuation of the subclavian artery as it passes under the midpoint of the clavicle on the outer edge of the first rib  termination: continues as the brachial ar...
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Subclavian artery

The subclavian arteries are asymmetric paired arteries that supply blood to the posterior cerebrum, cerebellum, posterior neck, upper limbs and the superior and anterior chest wall. Gross anatomy Origin Right and left subclavian arteries classically have different origins: right subclavian a...
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CT perfusion in ischemic stroke

CT perfusion in ischemic stroke has become established in most centers with stroke services as an important adjunct, along with CT angiography (CTA), to conventional unenhanced CT brain imaging. It enables differentiation of salvageable ischemic brain tissue (the penumbra) from the irrevocably ...
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Infarct core

The infarct core denotes the part of an acute ischemic stroke that has already infarcted or is irrevocably destined to infarct regardless of reperfusion. It is also referred to as established infarct and is in distinction from the penumbra, which remains potentially salvageable.  CT perfusion ...
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Musculophrenic artery

The musculophrenic artery is one of two terminal branches of the internal thoracic artery. Gross anatomy The musculophrenic artery runs along the costal slips of the diaphragm. It supplies the 7th, 8th and 9th intercostal spaces with paired anterior intercostal arteries, as well as fine branch...
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Brachiocephalic vein

The brachiocephalic veins, previously known as the innominate veins, are large paired valveless asymmetric central veins that drain the head, neck, upper limbs and part of the thorax and mediastinum.  Gross anatomy Origin In the root of the neck, the internal jugular (IJV) and subclavian vein...
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Internal thoracic artery

The internal thoracic artery (previously called the internal mammary artery) supplies the anterior body wall and its associated structures from the clavicles to the umbilicus. Gross anatomy Origin The internal thoracic artery arises from the first part of the subclavian artery in the base of ...
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External jugular vein

The external jugular vein (EJV) drains the head, face and part of the scapular region. Gross anatomy Origin The posterior division of the retromandibular vein and posterior auricular vein unite within the parotid gland to form the external jugular vein, at the angle of the mandible. Course ...
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Internal jugular vein

The internal jugular vein (IJV) is the major venous return from the brain, upper face and neck. Gross anatomy Origin and course It is formed by the union of inferior petrosal and sigmoid dural venous sinuses in or just distal to the jugular foramen (forming the jugular bulb). It descends in t...
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Middle meningeal artery

The middle meningeal artery is the dominant supply of the cranial dura. It arises from the first part of the maxillary artery, a terminal branch of the external carotid artery. It enters the middle cranial fossa via the foramen spinosum. Here it gives off two basal branches—the petrosal branch a...
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Superficial temporal artery

The superficial temporal artery is one of two terminal branches of the external carotid artery. Gross anatomy It arises in the parotid gland and runs between the deep and superficial lobes and then over the zygomatic arch. There are several named branches, together supplying part of the face ...
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Umbilical cord

The umbilical cord is a fetal organ that connects the placenta to the developing fetus and is a vital passage for nutrients, oxygen and waste products to and from the fetus. Gross anatomy The umbilical cord inserts into the center of the placental bulk and into the fetus at the umbilicus. Vari...
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Hepatic lymphangioma

Hepatic lymphangiomas are a rare benign condition that corresponds to focally dilated lymphatic channels in the liver.  For a general discussion on this topic, please refer to the parental article on lymphatic malformations.  Clinical presentation Most cases are asymptomatic. Pathology A ly...
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Brachial artery

The brachial artery is the main supply of arterial blood to the arm, forearm, and hand.  Summary origin: continuation of the axillary artery distal to teres major location: medial upper arm supply: muscles of the arm, forearm, and hand main branches: profunda brachii terminal branches: rad...
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External iliac artery

The external iliac artery (EIA) is the larger of the two terminal branches of the common iliac artery (CIA). Gross anatomy Origin The common iliac artery bifurcates into the internal iliac artery and external iliac artery at the level of the pelvic brim anterior to the sacroiliac joint.  Cou...
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Portal venous varix

A portal venous varix (plural: portal venous varices) refers to a segments of aneurysmal / variceal dilatation of the portal vein are extremely rare and represent only 3% of all aneurysms of the venous system. They are still however the most common visceral varix 8. Clinical presentation Most ...
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Diastolic pseudogating

Diastolic pseudogating appears as periodic bright and dark signal in arteries such as the aorta as one progresses through a series of images. Synchronization of the cardiac cycle and the pulse sequence results in high signal in the artery during diastole when blood is relatively stationary and l...
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Left main coronary artery

The left main coronary artery (LMCA) or left coronary artery (LCA) is one of the two main coronary arteries that supply the heart with oxygenated blood. Gross anatomy Origin The left main coronary artery is a branch of the ascending aorta, with its normal origin in the left aortic sinus, just...
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Traumatic aortic injury in the exam

Getting a film with traumatic aortic injury in the exam is one of the many exam set-pieces that can be prepared for.  This is one of the cases you should look and not speak for 10 seconds as there tends to be a lot of findings on the film of patients with a traumatic aortic injury. Description...
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Collateral systems between the celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery

There are several collateral systems between the primary vascular supply of the foregut and midgut.  The collaterals between the celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) include: gastroduodenal artery (GDA) branch of the common hepatic artery (CHA) and anastomoses with branches of th...
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Arc of Buhler aneurysm

An Arc of Buhler aneurysm is a rare pathology that can occur in an arc of Buhler. It can occur in association with stenoses of celiac axis. This is considered a true aneurysm. Transcatheter embolization has been successfully tried as the management technique. Differential diagnosis On imaging ...
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Right-sided aortic arch

Right-sided aortic arch is a type of aortic arch variant characterized by the aortic arch coursing to the right of the trachea. Different configurations can be found based on the supra-aortic branching patterns, with the two most common patterns being the right-sided aortic arch with mirror imag...
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Profunda femoris branches (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the branches of the profunda femoris artery: Put My Leg Down Please Mnemonic P: profunda femoris (deep femoral artery) M: medial circumflex femoral artery L: lateral circumflex femoral artery D: descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery P: perforati...
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Subclavian artery branches (mnemonic)

Helpful mnemonics to remember the branches of the subclavian artery include: Very Indignant Tired Individuals Sip Tasty Almond Coffee Served Double Daily VIT C, D (as in vitamins C and D) Mnemonics Very Indignant Tired Individuals Sip Tasty Almond Coffee Served Double Daily V: vertebral art...
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External jugular vein tributaries (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember external jugular vein (formed by the retromandibular and posterior auricular veins) tributaries is: PAST Mnemonic P: posterior external jugular vein A: anterior jugular vein S: suprascapular vein T: transverse cervical vein
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Branches of internal iliac artery (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the branches of the internal iliac artery is: I Love Going Places In My Very Own Underwear! Mnemonic I: iliolumbar artery L: lateral sacral artery G: gluteal (superior and inferior) arteries P: (internal) pudendal artery I: inferior vesical (vaginal in female...
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Inferior vena cava filter

Inferior vena cava filter, or just IVC filter, is an endovascular device which is typically placed in the infrarenal inferior vena cava (IVC) to prevent pulmonary embolism in selected patients. This procedure is most often performed by interventional radiologists under fluoroscopic guidance. In...
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Aorto-left renal vein fistula

Aorto-left renal vein fistula is an extremely rare complication of abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture. The initial clinical presentation is often non-specific, however, characteristic imaging findings, if recognized early, can lead to prompt diagnosis and assist in surgical planning.  Epidemiolo...
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Intra-aortic balloon pump

Intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABP) are used in the intensive care setting to provide hemodynamic assistance to patients in cardiogenic shock. Function and physiology The device is comprised of a catheter introduced via a femoral artery sheath, which extends retrogradely to the proximal descendi...
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Aortic isthmus

The aortic isthmus is the part of the aorta just distal to the origin of the left subclavian artery at the site of the ductus arteriosus. This portion of the aorta is partly constricted in the fetus because of the lack of flow within the aortic sac and ascending aorta. It marks the partial sepa...
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Thoracic plane (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to remember the structures found at the level of the thoracic plane (also known as the plane of Ludwig) is: CLAPTRAP RAT PLANT Mnemonic CLAPTRAP C: cardiac plexus L: ligamentum arteriosum A: aortic arch (inner concavity) P: pulmonary trunk T: tracheal bifurcation (carin...
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Branches of the external carotid artery (mnemonic)

Mnemonics for the branches of the external carotid artery abound. A few colorful examples include:  Some American Ladies Found Our Pyramids Most Satisfactory Some Anatomists Like Freaking Out Poor Medical Students She Always Likes Friends Over Papa, Mama, and Sister There are many many many ...
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Systemic lupus erythematosus

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease with multisystem involvement. Although abnormalities in almost every aspect of the immune system have been found, the key defect is thought to result from a loss of self-tolerance to autoantigens. Epidemiology There is a strong...
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Phase contrast imaging

Phase contrast imaging is an MRI technique that can be used to visualize moving fluid. Basic principle Spins that are moving in the same direction as a magnetic field gradient develop a phase shift that is proportional to the velocity of the spins. This is the basis of phase-contrast angiograp...
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Luetic aneurysm

Luetic aneurysms (also known as syphilitic aneurysms) are a type of aneurysm occurring usually secondary to syphilitic aortitis.  For a general discussion, and for links to other system-specific manifestations, please refer to the article on syphilis.  Pathology The responsible organism is a ...
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Non-AIDS associated Kaposi sarcoma

Non-AIDS associated Kaposi's sarcoma is a localized process which rarely involves lymph nodes or organs. For a discussion of Kaposi sarcoma in general, please refer to Kaposi sarcoma.  Epidemiology Sporadic (non-AIDS associated) Kaposi sarcoma is mostly seen in elderly males from the Mediterr...
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Draped aorta sign

The draped aorta sign is an important imaging feature that can be seen in contained rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. It is highly indicative of aortic wall deficiency.  This sign is considered present when the posterior wall of an aortic aneurysm drapes or molds to the anterior surface ...
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Borden classification of dural arteriovenous fistulas

The Borden classification of dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVF) groups these lesions into three types based upon the site of venous drainage and the presence or absence of cortical venous drainage. It was first proposed in 1995 1. At the time of writing (July 2016), it is probably less popular ...
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Giacomini vein

The Giacomini vein or thigh extension of the small saphenous vein refers to a variation in lower limb venous anatomy whereby the small saphenous vein (SSV) continues through to the thigh as a distinct branch. The persistence of this vein may play a contributory role in the development of chroni...
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Situs solitus

Situs solitus (rare plural: sitūs soliti) refers to the normal position of the thoracic and abdominal organs. This will include a left-sided heart, also known as levocardia. Radiographic features Plain radiograph On plain radiograph, careful attention should be directed at the location of the...
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Signal flare phenomenon

The signal flare phenomenon is a useful sign to identify active bleeding in a liquefied hematoma with hematocrit effect on dynamic CT scan images. When active arterial hemorrhage is present in a liquefied hematoma that has a hematocrit effect, a signal flare phenomenon may be seen as a linear, ...
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Concentric ring sign

The concentric ring sign is a pathognomonic sign for a subacute hematoma on MRI. A subacute hematoma may show three characteristic layers of signal intensity: a thin peripheral rim of low signal intensity on all pulse sequences corresponding to hemosiderin an inner peripheral high-signal inten...
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Sentinel clot sign

The sentinel clot sign is a useful CT finding for the evaluation of probable anatomic sites of hemorrhage. On CT, acute clotted hemorrhage typically has high attenuation (45 to 70 HU), whereas surrounding areas of acute non-clotted hemorrhage or more chronic hemorrhage have either lower attenua...
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Large vessel vasculitis

The term large vessel vasculitis (LVV) usually denotes the spectrum of primary vasculitides that causes chronic granulomatous inflammation predominantly involving the aorta and its major branches. Pathology The two major entities in this group are: giant cell arteritis (GCA): affects older in...
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String of beads sign (renal artery)

The string of beads sign is the description typically given to the appearance of the renal artery in fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) but may also be used to describe the appearance of splanchnic arteries in segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM). It refers to the appearance arising from the stenoses ...
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Polo mint sign (venous thrombosis)

The polo mint sign is a description given to a venous thrombosis on contrast-enhanced CT imaging.  When viewed in the axial plane, a thin rim of contrast persists around a central filling defect due to thrombus. This gives an appearance like that of the popular UK mint sweet, the Polo (figure 1)...
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Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return

Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR), also known as partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC), is a rare congenital cardiovascular condition in which some of the pulmonary veins, but not all, drain into the systemic circulation rather than in the left atrium. Epidemiolo...
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Carotid artery pseudoaneurysm

Carotid artery pseudoaneurysms can refer to pseudoaneurysms involving any segment of the carotid arteries. Pathology As with pseudoaneurysms elsewhere, these lack all three layers of the arterial wall (intima, media and adventitia). Pseudoaneurysm development can occur within hours to several...
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Double density sign (berry aneurysm)

Double density sign of berry aneurysms refers to the angiographic appearance of a small intracranial aneurysm projecting in front or behind a vessel of similar caliber. As such, the border of the aneurysm cannot easily be seen, but the extra contrast within it can be seen as a rounded area of in...
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Ascending aorta dilatation

Dilatation of the ascending aorta is a common finding in the elderly but unusual in younger patients. Pathology In adults, an ascending aortic diameter greater than 4 cm is considered to indicate dilatation 4. Aneurysmal dilatation is considered when the ascending aortic diameter reaches or ex...
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Ascending aortic aneurysm

Ascending aortic aneurysms are the most common subtype of thoracic aortic aneurysms and may be true or false aneurysms.  Epidemiology Ascending aortic aneurysms represent 60% of thoracic aortic aneurysms.  Clinical presentation Typically ascending aortic aneurysms are an incidental finding a...
Article

Bronchial arterial aneurysm

Bronchial arterial aneurysm refers to any form of aneurysmal dilatation involving any segment of the bronchial artery. The term is sometimes used synonymously with a bronchial arterial pseudoaneurysm 2. Epidemiology They are a rare entity and are reported in <1% of those who undergo selective ...
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Puff of smoke sign

The puff of smoke sign describes the characteristic angiographic appearance of tiny abnormal intracranial collateral vessel networks in moyamoya disease. Progressive narrowing of the supraclinoid internal carotid arteries and circle of Willis vessels results in extensive small collateral arteria...
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Superior mesenteric artery dissection

Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) dissection is an uncommon type of arterial dissection. It can either on its own (spontaneous isolated) or occur as part of an extension of an aortic dissection (combined), with the latter being more common. However, spontaneous isolated SMA dissection is consider...
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Superficial thrombophlebitis

Superficial thrombophlebitis, also called superficial venous thrombosis (SVT), is a pathological condition characterized by the presence of a thrombus in the lumen of a superficial vein, accompanied by inflammatory reaction of adjacent tissues. Terminology Some authors, however, reserve the te...
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Superior vena cava obstruction

Superior vena cava obstruction (SVCO) can occur from extrinsic compression, intrinsic stenosis, or thrombosis of the superior vena cava. Malignancies are the main cause and are considered an oncologic emergency. Superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) refers to the clinical syndrome with symptoms tha...
Article

Idiopathic pauci immune pulmonary capillaritis

Idiopathic pauci immune pulmonary capillaritis (IPIPC) is considered a rare type of pulmonary vasculitis. Some authors consider this due be an organ specific subset of microscopic polyangiitis 3. It can result in diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. Pathology It is an isolated small vessel vasculitis ...
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Pulmonary vasculitis

Pulmonary vasculitis refers to vasculitides that affect the lung or pulmonary vessels. If this definition is used, a large group of conditions can fall into this category. The respiratory system may be potentially involved in all systemic vasculitides, although to a variable degree. Pathology ...
Article

Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula

Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (SDAVF) are the most common type of spinal vascular malformation, accounting for ~70% of all such lesions. This article specifically relates to spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas. For a discussion of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas refer to the mai...
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Pulsatile portal venous flow

A pulsatile portal venous flow pattern is an abnormal form of portal venous flow and can result from both physiological and pathological causes. In well subjects mild pulsatility, or in rare situations, even marked pulsatility has been described, particularly in thin subjects, with a venous pul...
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Pulmonary edema due to air embolism

Pulmonary edema due to air embolism is one for the uncommon causes of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. It usually occurs as an iatrogenic complication of an invasive procedure. Rarely, it may also be associated with open or closed chest trauma.  Pathology Air may enter into the low-pressure ve...
Article

Duplication of inferior vena cava

Duplication of the inferior vena cava is a relatively rare vascular anomaly, but this caval abnormality needs to be recognized, especially in association with renal anomalies like crossed fused ectopia or circumaortic renal collar 1,2. Epidemiology The incidence of inferior vena cava duplicati...
Article

Splenic artery pseudoaneurysm

Splenic artery pseudoaneurysms are a rare type of pseudoaneurysm arising from any portion of the splenic artery and its branches.  Clinical presentation Unlike splenic artery true aneurysms, splenic artery pseudoaneurysms will nearly always present with symptoms 2. While there occurrence may b...
Article

Midaortic syndrome

Midaortic syndrome is an uncommon entity affecting children and young adults. It is characterized by progressive narrowing of the abdominal aorta and its major branches. Clinical presentation The onset of symptoms is usually during childhood or young adulthood 2: hypertension (most common) i...
Article

Soft tissue sarcoma

Soft tissue sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant tumors of mesenchymal origin (sarcoma) that originate from the soft tissues rather than bone. They are classified on the basis of tissue seen on histology. The commoner sarcomas in the adult and pediatric population are listed below. A...
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Proteus syndrome

Proteus syndrome is a rare congenital, multisystemic, hamartomatous condition characterized by asymmetrical overgrowth of almost any part of the body and a broad spectrum of manifestations. It can affect tissue from any germinal layer. Clinical presentation Affected patients usually appear nor...
Article

Veno-occlusive mesenteric ischemia

Veno-occlusive mesenteric ischemia is most often the result of superior mesenteric vein (SMV) thrombosis and is a less common cause of acute mesenteric ischemia. Despite thrombosis of the SMV, small bowel necrosis often does not occur, presumably due to persistent arterial supply and some venous...
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F P Weber syndrome

F P Weber syndrome (FPWS) is a traditional eponymous denomination of a certain type of angiodysplasia, that would nowadays rather be called a mixed hemolymphatic congenital vascular malformation (CVM) with arteriovenous (AV) shunting, based on the Hamburg classification of CVMs. In his original...
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Femoral artery pseudoaneurysm

Femoral artery pseudoaneurysms are usually iatrogenic, as the femoral artery is the vessel of choice for most endovascular arterial interventions. Pathology Etiology iatrogenic anticoagulation therapy inadequate compression following femoral arterial puncture for endovascular intervention ...
Article

Contrast enhanced MR angiography

Contrast-enhanced MR angiography (MRA) is a technique involving 3D spoiled gradient-echo (GE) sequences, with administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCA). It can be used to assess vascular structures of almost any part of the body. Its key features are: T1 weighted spoiled gradien...
Article

Cisterna chyli

The cisterna chyli (CC) (plural: cisternae chyli), also known as the receptaculum chyli, is a normal anatomical structure in the lymphatic system. It is seen as a saccular area of dilatation in the lymphatic channels that are located in the retrocrural space, usually to the immediate right of th...

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