Splenic artery aneurysm

Splenic artery aneuryms are the commonest visceral arterial aneurysm formation as well as the 3rd commonest abdominal aneurysm (after the aorta and iliac vessels). Aneurysms are usually saccular in configuration and they can either be in the form of a true aneurysm (much more common) or as a pseudoaneurysm.

This article focus on the true splenic artery aneurysm, please refer on splenic artery pseudoaneurysms for a specific discussion on this entity. 

  • the true prevalence of splenic artery aneurysm is unknown.
  • estimates vary widely from 0.2% to 10.4%, but generally it is the third most common site of intra-abdominal aneurysms after abdominal aorta and iliac arteries 1,6.
  • incidentally discovered splenic artery aneurysms are being diagnosed more frequent with wider use of cross-sectional imaging modalities 7.
  • a splenic artery aneurysm is about four times more common in females, yet the risk of its rupture is about three times more common in males 13

Most splenic artery aneurysms are silent and are discovered in asymptomatic patients 2. More than 95 % of patients with non-ruptured splenic artery aneurysms were asymptomatic 13. Risk of rupture increases with liver transplantation, portal hypertension, and pregnancy. A ruptured splenic artery aneurysm usually present by sudden onset of left upper quadrant abdominal pain followed by hemodynamic instability, and gastro-intestinal bleeding 14.

The so-called “double rupture” phenomenon occurs when initial spontaneous stabilization followed by subsequent sudden circulatory collapse is experienced. This is caused by initial bleeding collecting into the lesser sac then followed by flooding into the peritoneal cavity 15

Size of splenic artery aneurysms can range from 2 to 9 cm, but usually it is smaller than 3 cm. Those may be single or multiple and are most commonly involving the distal portion of the artery. Peripheral calcification is common, and mural thrombus may be present 12

Several imaging modalities can be used to diagnose splenic artery aneurysms.

Ultrasound with Doppler is non ionising modality and relatively cheap and available yet it is operator dependent, has limited spatial resolution and may be difficult in cases of obesity, bowel shadowing and atherosclerosis.

MR angiography is of higher spatial resoluion than US but it is relatively expensive and contra-indicated in some patients (claustrophobia, aneurysm clips, cardiac pace makers).

CT angiography is a quick and efficient examination, has higher resolution than MR and its MPR capabilities greatly help is diagnosis, yet it has its contra-indications (renal failure, allergy to contrast).

Direct catheter angiography is a gold standard modality, has the highest resolution and concomitant management can be applied, yet it still carries the complications of arterial puncture 8 9 10 11.

The overall risk of rupture is thought to be ~6%. However in an event of rupture there is a relatively high mortality rate of ~36% 4.

Follow-up of incidentally-detected splenic artery aneurysms 5:

  • < 2 cm
    • spontaneous rupture is rare
      • 1 year follow up, if no risk factors
      • follow up interval may be extended if other comorbidities are present, or if there is a decreased life expectancy
  • ≥ 2 cm
    • endovascular therapy should be considered
      • coil embolisation is increasingly used to treat larger aneurysms

Rapidly increasing size, presence in a premenopausal woman, cirrhosis, and symptomatic aneurysm may warrant intervention, regardless of size.

  • if only limited views of the upper abdomen are available, it may be difficult to differentiate from a (calcified) left adrenal haematoma
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Article information

rID: 9775
System: Vascular
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Splenic artery aneurysms
  • Splenic artery true aneurysm
  • Splenic arterial aneurysm
  • Splenic arterial aneurysms
  • True splenic artery aneurysm
  • Splenic arterial true aneurysm
  • Splenic arterial true aneurysms
  • True splenic artery aneurysms
  • Splenic artery true aneurysms

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