Tuberculosis (fallopian tube)
Tuberculosis of the fallopian tube is one of the most common sites of tuberculous pelvic inflammatory disease.
Many patients may be asymptomatic, with the disease being discovered during the workup for infertility. Signs and symptoms are often vague and can include acute or chronic pain, infertility, and vaginal bleeding.
Like pelvic tuberculosis, infection almost always results from spread from an extragenital source, usually haematogenous or less commonly via lymphatic vessels or from the peritoneal cavity.
Both tubes are usually affected.
May show calcification of the fallopian tubes in a small proportion of patients. Tubal calcification can take the form of linear streaks, which lie in the course of the fallopian tube or appear as faint or dense tiny nodules.
Tubal occlusion in tuberculosis is considered the most common sign observed on an HSG and occurs most commonly in the region of isthmus and ampulla. Multiple constrictions along the course of the Fallopian tube can also form from scarring and give rise to ‘‘beaded’’ appearance to the tubes. Scarring can also lead to a ‘‘rigid pipe stem’’ appearance of the tubes.
Tuberculous salpingitis without blockage can appear as a thick walled tortuous structure with vivid enhancement.
On a hysterosalpingogram consider:
- causative agent
- tuberculoma (tuberculous granuloma)
- tuberculous abscess
- miliary tuberculosis
- pulmonary tuberculosis
- cardiac tuberculosis
- intracranial tuberculosis
- tuberculous otomastoiditis
- gastrointestinal tuberculosis
- genitourinary tuberculosis
- skeletal tuberculosis
- tuberculous mastitis
- tuberculous lymphadenopathy
- tuberculous adrenalitis
- 1. Yoder IC, Hall DA. Hysterosalpingography in the 1990s. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1991;157 (4): 675-83. AJR Am J Roentgenol (abstract) - Pubmed citation
- 2. Chavhan GB, Hira P, Rathod K et-al. Female genital tuberculosis: hysterosalpingographic appearances. Br J Radiol. 2004;77 (914): 164-9. doi:10.1259/bjr/27379200 - Pubmed citation
- 3. Rezvani M, Shaaban AM. Fallopian tube disease in the nonpregnant patient. Radiographics. 31 (2): 527-48. doi:10.1148/rg.312105090 - Pubmed citation