Graves disease: thyroid scintigraphy
Episodic palpitations, diaphoresis, and weight loss.
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Anterior distant image obtained with Tc-99m-pertechtenate shows that the gland is enlarged. Activity throughout gland is increased relative to the background due to hyperfunctionality of the gland.
Scintigraphic interpretation: When interpreting scintigraphic images it is important to have the information about the patient's history and physical, especially assessment of the thyroid gland--where the majority of evaluations take place. Uniformity and intensity of the image of the organ in evaluation and background should be observed. Variations in function of focal areas should also be noted; making specific comparisons between foci of increased or decreased function relative to the background activity in the remaining of the extrafocal tissue.
Sources of error: local contamination (e.g. clothing, skin, hair, collimator, crystal), esophageal activity (e.g. hiatal hernia), suppression of iodine uptake by interfering substances. Asking the patient to rinse their mouth with water and then swallowing is sometimes useful to eliminate activity by the mouth or the esophagus.
Anticipated results: RAIU in the evaluation of thyrotoxicosis, namely Graves Disease, is commonly elevated at 24 hours. In patients with substantially increased thyroid hormone synthesis and turnover, 4-hour and 6-hour RAIU may be elevated while 24-hour uptake is within normal limits. This patient demonstrated increased RAIU at both 4 and 6 hours.
- Intenzo C., dePapp A, Jabbour S, Miller J, Kim S, Capuzzi D. (2003) Scintigraphic Manifestations of Thyrotoxicosis. RadioGraphics, 23, 857-869.
- Intenzo C, Capuzzi D, Jabbour S, Kim S, dePapp A. (2001). Scinitigraphic features of Autoimmune Thyroiditis. RadioGraphics, 21, 957-964. - Pub Med citation
- Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging: http://interactive.snm.org/docs/Thyroid_Scintigraphy_V3.pdf