Items tagged “ref”
31 results found
Pelvic peritoneal space
The pelvic peritoneal space is the inferior reflection of the peritoneum over the fundus of the urinary bladder and the front of the rectum at the junction of its middle and lower thirds. In females, the reflection is also over the anterior and posterior surface of the uterus and the upper poste...
Endometrial polyps are benign nodular protrusions of the endometrial surface, and one of the entities included in a differential of endometrial thickening. Endometrial polyps can either be sessile or pedunculated. They can often be suggested on ultrasound or MRI studies, but may require sonohyst...
Swan neck deformity (fingers)
Swan neck deformity is a deformity of the digits that consists of: hyperextension of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints compensatory flexion of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints Pathology Swan neck deformity is seen in 3,4: rheumatoid arthritis (classical association) post-tr...
Traumatic aortic injury in the exam
Getting a film with traumatic aortic injury in the exam is one of the many exam set-pieces that can be prepared for. This is one of the cases you should look and not speak for 10 seconds as there tends to be a lot of findings on the film of patients with traumatic aortic injury. Description ...
Diastolic pseudogating appears as periodic bright and dark signal in arteries such as the aorta as one progresses through a series of images. Synchronization of the cardiac cycle and the pulse sequence results in high signal in the artery during diastole when blood is relatively stationary and l...
Gastric mucinous adenocarcinoma
Diagnosis almost certain
Published 17 Jun 2013
Carcinoma of the cervix
Diagnosis almost certain
Published 21 Jun 2013
The retrotracheal space (or Raider triangle) is a radiolucent mediastinal space best seen on lateral chest x-rays. It is normally triangular in shape but can vary greatly in size and shape depending on the patient's body habitus and lung volume 1. Boundaries anterior: posterior tracheal stripe...
Adenocarcinoma of sigmoid colon
Diagnosis almost certain
Published 20 Jul 2013
A spotted nephrogram refers to non homogenous, irregular, patchy renal parenchymal enhancement seen predominantly on angiograms. Pathology It is considered to be due to focal areas of cortical ischaemia or necrosis seen as a result of small vessel occlusion. This abnormal perfusion pattern can...
Onion bulb formation
Onion bulb formation is seen in hypertrophic neuropathies such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). It is the result of proliferation of Schwann cells and deposition of collagen 1. Radiographic features MRI The nerve roots appea...
Raghib syndrome is a rare developmental complex, which consists of persistence of the left superior vena cava along with coronary sinus ostial atresia and atrial septal defect. It has also been associated with other congenital malformations including ventricular septal defects, enlargement o...
Superior vena cava obstruction (grading)
SVC obstruction can cause SVC syndrome which is the most common condition affecting this vessel. It can be secondary to an extrinsic compression or intraluminal thrombosis/stenosis. Collateral pathways, with the azygos vein being the most important collateral vessel, form in response to severe n...
Angiomyofibroblastoma-like tumour of scrotum
Angiomyofibroblastoma-like tumour of the scrotum is a rare, well-defined, slow growing mesenchymal extratesticular nonepididymal tumour rarely seen in the perineum or scrotum of older male patients. A similar tumour can occur in females in the vulval region. Epidemiology In males, they are se...
Obstruction of nasolacrimal drainage apparatus
Obstruction of nasolacrimal drainage apparatus results in epiphora and can be primary or secondary, congenital or acquired. Obstruction can occur in canaliculi, lacrimal sac, or nasolacrimal duct (post saccular) levels. Congenital obstruction is usually secondary to persistence of the membrane ...
Anterior lacrimal crest
The anterior lacrimal crest is a bony projection on the frontal process of the maxilla continuous with the orbital rim which creates the lateral margin of the lacrimal sac fossa. The medial palpebral ligament is attached to anterior lacrimal crest. Immediately anterior to the anterior lacrimal ...
Posterior lacrimal crest
The posterior lacrimal crest is a bony projection on the lacrimal bone which creates the medial margin of the lacrimal sac fossa. See also anterior lacrimal crest
Lacrimal sac fossa
The lacrimal sac fossa is an excavated fossa in the inferior aspect of the anteromedial orbital wall which contains the lacrimal sac. It is bounded by the anterior and posterior lacrimal crests of the maxillary and lacrimal bones, respectively. In adults, it measures approximately 8-9mm anteropo...
The maxillary line is a mucosal projection along the lateral nasal wall corresponding to lacrimomaxillary suture externally. The midportion of the line is called "M point". During endoscopic sinus and orbital procedures the maxillary line and M-point are very important and useful landmarks in pa...
Intramembranous ossification describes the process of ossification from mesenchymal cells (stem cells) without a cartilaginous template and is involved in the healing process of fractures. The stages of intramembranous ossification osteogenesis are as follows: mesenchymal cells differentiate in...