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Items tagged “rewrite”

113 results found
Article

Arteriosclerosis

Arteriosclerosis is defined by thickening and loss of elasticity of the arterial walls. There are three patterns (arteriosclerosis is used as a generic term for all patterns above): atherosclerosis: large and medium-sized arteries Mönckeberg medial calcific sclerosis: muscular arteries arter...
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Brodie abscess

Brodie abscess is an intraosseous abscess related to a focus of subacute pyogenic osteomyelitis. Unfortunately, there is no reliable way radiographically to exclude a focus of osteomyelitis. It has a protean radiographic appearance and can occur at any location and in a patient of any age. It mi...
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Cardiac blood pool scan

A multi-gated (MUGA) cardiac blood pool scan (sometimes just called a MUGA scan) is a common study performed in patients who are receiving potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy.  Indications acute myocardial infarction (AMI) coronary artery disease (CAD) evaluation after coronary artery bypas...
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Cerebral vascular malformations

Vascular malformations of the central nervous system can be divided, as they can elsewhere, into high and low flow malformations. High flow arteriovenous malformation (AVM) cerebral AVM (pial/parenchymal AVM) cerebral proliferative angiopathy dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) pial arteri...
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Deep vein thrombosis

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) most commonly occurs in the lower limbs, however, are not uncommon in the upper limb and neck veins. Other types of venous thrombosis, such as intra-abdominal and intracranial, are discussed in separate articles. Terminology The term indeterminate (equivocal) DVT is ...
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Extensor mechanism of the knee injuries

Extensor mechanism of the knee injuries include: quadriceps muscle tears quadriceps tendon rupture patellar tendon rupture patella fracture patellar dislocation often with medial retinaculum tears patellar sleeve fractures Chronic injuries Osgood-Schlatter disease Sinding-Larsen-Johans...
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Hypervascular liver lesions

Hypervascular liver lesions may be caused by primary liver pathology or metastatic disease. Differential diagnosis Primary lesions hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) most common hypervascular primary liver malignancy early arterial phase enhancement and then rapid wash out rim enhancement of c...
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Nodular filling defects of duodenum (differential)

Nodular filling defects due to mucosal lesions in the duodenum are due to a number of processes. For a differential list which includes non-mucosal lesions see duodenal filling defects. The differential diagnosis for mucosal lesions includes:  heterotopic gastric mucosa 1-2 mm clustered onl...
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Optic nerve

The optic nerve is the second cranial nerve which, along with the olfactory nerve (CN I), is really an extension of the central nervous system. It is not surrounded by Schwann cells with the first sensory bipolar cell body located peripherally in the retina. Their central processes synapse on ga...
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Papillary thyroid cancer

Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common malignancy of the thyroid gland and frequently has nodal metastases at presentation. Terminology When the tumor measures <1 cm, the term micropapillary carcinoma (mPTC) is used 14.  Epidemiology Papillary thyroid cancer (as is the case wit...
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Portal hypertensive gastropathy / enteropathy / colopathy

In portal hypertension, chronic portal venous congestion leads to dilatation and ectasia of the submucosal vessels in the stomach (portal hypertensive gastropathy), small bowel (portal hypertensive enteropathy) and/or large bowel (portal hypertensive colopathy). This may result in upper or lower...
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Spinal epidural injection

Epidural spinal injections are one of the more frequently performed spinal interventional procedures.Three approaches to the epidural space exist: transforaminal epidural injection interlaminar epidural injection cervical interlaminar epidural injection lumbar interlaminar epidural injection...
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Assessment of thyroid lesions (general)

Assessment of thyroid lesions is commonly encountered in radiological practice. Thyroid mass hyperplastic/colloid nodule/nodular hyperplasia: 85% adenoma follicular: 5% others: rare carcinoma papillary: 60-80% of carcinomas follicular: 10-20% medullary: 5% anaplastic: 1-2% thyroid ly...
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True aneurysm

In a true aneurysm, the aneurysm is bound by all three layers of the vessel wall (intima, media and adventitia). The wall may be attenuated. The risk of rupture is proportional to the size of the aneurysm. Pathology Etiology congenital atherosclerosis hypertension vasculitis hereditary...
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Tuberculous otomastoiditis

Tuberculous otomastoiditis is an uncommon form of acute otomastoiditis that occurs secondary to tuberculosis infection, although its frequency is increasing as a result of greater population of immunocompromised patients. Clinical presentation Classically it is described as presenting with pa...
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Vertebral anomalies

The vertebral column is affected by a range of anatomical variants of the body and/or neural arch as well as accessory ossicles. Knowledge of basic vertebral anatomy and ossification is essential for describing and understanding the range of anomalies. Variant anatomy Vertebral body hemiverte...
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Upper gastrointestinal bleeding

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is defined as bleeding proximal to the ligament of Treitz. Epidemiology The incidence of acute upper GI bleeding is ~100 per 100,000 adults per year. Upper GI bleeding is twice as common in men as in women and increases in prevalence with age 5. The demog...
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Fetal posterior cerebral artery

A fetal (origin of the) posterior cerebral artery is a common variant in the posterior cerebral circulation, estimated to occur in 20-30% of individuals 2. The posterior communicating artery (PCOM) is larger than the P1 segment of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and supplies the bulk of the...
Article

Femur

The femur (plural: femora) is the longest, most voluminous and strongest bone in the human body. Gross anatomy It is composed of the upper extremity, body and lower extremity and provides several muscular origins and insertions. Proximal portion The upper extremity is composed of the head, n...
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Gastro-esophageal reflux disease

Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a spectrum of disease that occurs when gastric acid refluxes from the stomach into the lower end of the esophagus across the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Clinical presentation Common clinical features in adults include epigastric and retrosternal...

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