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Items tagged “rewrite”

119 results found
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Arteriosclerosis

Arteriosclerosis is defined by thickening and loss of elasticity of the arterial walls. There are three patterns of arteriosclerosis: atherosclerosis: large and medium-sized arteries Mönckeberg medial calcific sclerosis: muscular arteries arteriolosclerosis: small arteries and arterioles At...
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Cardiac blood pool scan

A multi-gated (MUGA) cardiac blood pool scan (sometimes just called a MUGA scan) is a common study performed in patients who are receiving potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy.  Indications acute myocardial infarction (AMI) coronary artery disease (CAD) evaluation after coronary artery bypas...
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Cerebrovascular malformations

Cerebrovascular malformations are vascular malformations related to the vessels that supply the brain and other cranial structures. Classification Over the years, cerebral vascular malformations have been classified in a variety of ways by many authors, often on the basis of the presence or ab...
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Deep vein thrombosis

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) most commonly occurs in the lower limbs, however, are not uncommon in the upper limb and neck deep veins. Other types of venous thrombosis, such as intra-abdominal and intracranial, are discussed in separate articles. Terminology The term indeterminate (equivocal) DV...
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Extensor mechanism of the knee injuries

Extensor mechanism of the knee injuries can be subdivided into: acute injuries quadriceps muscle tears quadriceps tendon rupture patellar tendon rupture patella fracture patellar dislocation often with medial retinaculum tears patellar sleeve fractures chronic injuries  Osgood-Schlatter...
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Hypervascular liver lesions

Hypervascular liver lesions are findings that enhance more or similarly to the background hepatic parenchyma in the late arterial phase, on contrast-enhanced CT or MRI. Differential diagnosis Non-neoplastic vascular shunts intrahepatic arterioportal shunt intrahepatic arteriovenous shunt f...
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Nodular filling defects of duodenum (differential)

Nodular filling defects due to mucosal lesions in the duodenum are due to a number of processes. For a differential list which includes non-mucosal lesions see duodenal filling defects. The differential diagnosis for mucosal lesions includes:  heterotopic gastric mucosa 1-2 mm clustered onl...
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Optic nerve

The optic nerve is the second (CN II) cranial nerve (TA: nervus opticus or nervus cranialis II). It is a purely sensory nerve that conveys visual information from the eye to the brain.  The nerve arises from the back of the globe exiting the orbit via the optic canal. It joins the contralateral...
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Portal hypertensive gastroenterocolopathy

Portal hypertensive gastroenterocolopathy is a finding in portal hypertension, whereby chronic portal venous congestion leads to dilatation and ectasia of the submucosal vessels of the stomach (portal hypertensive gastropathy), small bowel (portal hypertensive enteropathy) and/or large bowel (po...
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Rim sign (osteonecrosis)

A rim sign can be seen in osteonecrosis and comprises a high T2 or intermediate T1 signal line sandwiched between two low signal lines, and represents fluid between the sclerotic borders of an osteochondral fragment, and implies instability (stage III). This rim sign should not be confused with...
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Spinal epidural injection

Epidural spinal injections are one of the more frequently performed spinal interventional procedures. Three approaches to the epidural space exist:​ caudal epidural injection (via the sacral hiatus) interlaminar epidural injection cervical interlaminar epidural injection lumbar interlaminar ...
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Assessment of thyroid lesions (general)

Assessment of thyroid lesions is commonly encountered in radiological practice. Thyroid mass hyperplastic/colloid nodule/nodular hyperplasia: 85% adenoma follicular: 5% others: rare primary thyroid cancer (carcinoma) papillary: 60-80% of carcinomas follicular: 10-20% medullary: 5% anap...
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True aneurysm

In a true aneurysm, the aneurysm is bound by all three layers of the vessel wall (intima, media and adventitia). The wall may be attenuated. The risk of rupture is proportional to the size of the aneurysm. Pathology Etiology congenital atherosclerosis hypertension vasculitis hereditary...
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Tuberculous otomastoiditis

Tuberculous otomastoiditis is an uncommon form of acute otomastoiditis that occurs secondary to tuberculosis infection, although its frequency is increasing as a result of greater population of immunocompromised patients. Clinical presentation Classically it is described as presenting with pa...
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Vertebral anomalies

The vertebral column is affected by a range of anatomical variants of the body and/or neural arch as well as accessory ossicles. Knowledge of basic vertebral anatomy and ossification is essential for describing and understanding the range of anomalies. Variant anatomy Vertebral body hemiverte...
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Upper gastrointestinal bleeding

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is defined as bleeding proximal to the ligament of Treitz. Epidemiology The incidence of acute upper GI bleeding is ~100 per 100,000 adults per year. Upper GI bleeding is twice as common in men as in women and increases in prevalence with age 5. The demog...
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Fetal posterior cerebral artery

A fetal (origin of the) posterior cerebral artery is a common variant in the posterior cerebral circulation, estimated to occur in 20-30% of individuals 2. The posterior communicating artery (PCom) is larger than the P1 segment of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and supplies the bulk of the...
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Femur

The femur (plural: femora) is the longest, most voluminous and strongest bone in the human body. Gross anatomy It is composed of the upper extremity, body and lower extremity and provides several muscular origins and insertions. Proximal portion The upper extremity is composed of the head, n...
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Gastro-esophageal reflux disease

Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), often shortened to reflux disease, is a spectrum of disease that occurs when gastric acid refluxes from the stomach into the lower end of the esophagus across the lower esophageal sphincter. Epidemiology It affects 10% to 20% of the adult population in ...
Article

Portal vein

The portal vein (PV) (sometimes referred to as the main or hepatic portal vein) is the main vessel in the portal venous system and drains blood from the gastrointestinal tract and spleen to the liver. Terminology A portal venous system connects two capillary beds, meaning one organ / organ sys...

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