Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,922 results found
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Tuberculous empyema

Tuberculous empyema is a chronic, active infection of the pleural space characterized by a thick rind of pleura with dense and irregular calcification of both the parietal and visceral pleura usually surrounding a loculated pleural fluid which contains a large number of tubercle bacilli 1. This ...
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Pleural empyema

Pleural empyema (commonly referred simply as an empyema) or pyothorax refers to an infected purulent and often loculated pleural effusion, and is a cause of a large unilateral pleural collection. It is a potentially life-threatening condition requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment. Epidemiolo...
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Pleural tuberculosis

Pleural tuberculosis refers to various manifestations of involvement of the pleura by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  It manifests in various forms which include tuberculous pleuritis tuberculous empyema  tuberculous pleural effusion 3
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Tuberculosis (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary manifestations of tuberculosis are varied and depend in part whether the infection is primary or post-primary. The lungs are the most common site of primary infection by tuberculosis and are a major source of spread of the disease and of individual morbidity and mortality. A general d...
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Pleural calcification

Pleural calcification can be the result of a wide range of pathology and can be mimicked by a number of conditions/artifacts. True calcification calcified pleural plaques from asbestos exposure: typically with sparing of the costophrenic angles hemothorax infection involving the ple...
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Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a distinct subgroup of pulmonary hypertension that most frequently develops following massive or repeated pulmonary embolism. Terminology The term CTEPH should be used for patients with chronic thromboembolic disease and pulmonary hypert...
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Asthma

Asthma is a relatively common condition that is characterized by at least partially reversible inflammation of the airways and reversible airway obstruction due to airway hyperreactivity. It can be acute, subacute or chronic. Epidemiology Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in th...
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Empyema vs pleural effusion

An empyema can resemble a pleural effusion and can mimic a peripheral pulmonary abscess. Features that help distinguish a pleural effusion from an empyema include: Shape and location Empyemas usually: form an obtuse angle with the chest wall unilateral or markedly asymmetric whereas ple...
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Empyema vs pulmonary abscess

Distinguishing between an empyema and a peripherally located pulmonary abscess is essential. A pulmonary abscess is usually managed with prolonged antibiotics and physiotherapy with postural drainage, whereas an empyema usually requires percutaneous or surgical drainage. Radiographic features ...
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Split pleura sign (empyema)

The split pleura sign is seen with pleural empyemas and is considered the most reliable CT sign helping to distinguish an empyema from a peripheral pulmonary abscess (see empyema vs pulmonary abscess) 1,2.  The sign results from fibrin coating both the parietal and visceral surfaces of the pleu...
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Pulmonary blastoma

Pulmonary blastomas (PBs) comprise a rare group of lung tumors principally consisting of immature mesenchymal and epithelial structures that structurally mimic the embryonic lung. They are usually diagnosed in pediatric populations, however have been identified in young adults up to the fourth d...
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COVID-19

For a quick reference guide, please see our COVID-19 summary article. COVID-19 (coronavirus disease-2019) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a strain of coronavirus. The first cases were seen in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 before ...
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Benign metastasizing leiomyoma

Benign metastasizing leiomyomas (or leiomyomata) are a rare non-malignant metastatic phenomenon that may be observed with a pelvic leiomyoma. Epidemiology Women who have undergone hysterectomy for leiomyomas are most commonly affected. Associations diffuse peritoneal leiomyomatosis intraven...
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Saddle pulmonary embolism

Saddle pulmonary embolism commonly refers to a large pulmonary embolism that straddles the bifurcation of the pulmonary trunk, extending into the left and right pulmonary arteries. If large enough, it can completely obstruct both left and right pulmonary arteries resulting in right heart failur...
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CT pulmonary angiogram (protocol)

The computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA/CTPE) is a commonly performed diagnostic examination to exclude pulmonary emboli (PE). Each radiology department will have a slightly different method for achieving the same outcome, i.e. diagnostic density of the main pulmonary artery and its br...
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Respiratory distress syndrome

Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a relatively common condition that occurs in preterm neonates resulting from insufficient production of surfactant.  Terminology RDS is also known as hyaline membrane disease (not favored as reflects non-specific histological findings), neonatal respirato...
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Acquired tracheo-esophageal fistula

An acquired tracheo-esophageal fistula refers to a pathological communication between the trachea and esophagus due to a secondary cause. Pathology Acquired causes of tracheo-esophageal fistulae can be divided into those that are related to malignancy (common) and those from other causes (unco...
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Tuberous sclerosis

Tuberous sclerosis (TS), also known as tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) or Bourneville disease, is a phakomatosis (neurocutaneous disorder) characterized by the development of multiple benign tumors of the embryonic ectoderm (e.g. skin, eyes, and nervous system). Epidemiology Tuberous sclerosi...
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Labeled imaging anatomy cases

This article lists a series of labeled imaging anatomy cases by body region and modality. Brain CT head: non-contrast axial CT head: non-contrast coronal CT head: non-contrast sagittal CT head: non-contrast axial with clinical questions CT head: angiogram axial CT head: angiogram coronal ...
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CT transcatheter aortic valve implantation planning (protocol)

The transcatheter aortic valve implantation or TAVI planning CT protocol is used to plan for transcatheter aortic valve implantation. CT allows for the assessment of the aortic root and valve annulus in order to select an appropriate valve size and location-specific to the patient. An aortic ang...
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Prosthetic heart valve

Prosthetic heart valves are common. The four valves of the heart may all be surgically replaced. However, the aortic and mitral valves are the most commonly replaced. Replacements may be tissue or metallic valves, only the latter being visualized on imaging investigations. Sometimes the annulus...
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Multinodular goiter

Multinodular goiter (MNG) is defined as an enlarged thyroid gland (i.e. goiter) due to multiple nodules which may have normal, decreased or increased function.  Terminology When increased activity and hyperthyroidism are present then the condition is referred to as a toxic multinodular goiter ...
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Substernal goiter

Substernal goiter (or retrosternal goiter) is an enlarged thyroid gland with intrathoracic extension. Terminology It remains unclear which goiters are to be termed substernal, but a recently proposed definition is a goiter that requires mediastinal exploration and dissection for complete remov...
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Achalasia

Achalasia (primary achalasia) is a failure of organized esophageal peristalsis causing impaired relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter, and resulting in food stasis and often marked dilatation of the esophagus.  Obstruction of the distal esophagus from other non-functional etiologies, not...
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Aortic intramural hematoma

Aortic intramural hematoma is an atypical form of aortic dissection due to a contained hemorrhage into the aortic wall usually from the vasa vasorum without an intimal tear. It forms part of the acute aortic syndrome spectrum along with penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer and classical aortic diss...
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Bovine arch

Bovine arch is the most common variant of the aortic arch and occurs when the brachiocephalic (innominate) artery shares a common origin with the left common carotid artery.  Epidemiology A bovine arch is present in ~15% (range 8-25%) of the population and is more common in individuals of Afri...
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Phrenic nerve palsy

Phrenic nerve palsy (also known as phrenic nerve paresis or paralysis) has many causes and can be caused by lesions anywhere along the course of the phrenic nerve, as it travels from the neck, to pierce the diaphragm adjacent to the pericardium. Epidemiology No single demographic is affected, ...
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Osteophyte-induced adjacent pulmonary atelectasis and fibrosis

Osteophyte-induced adjacent pulmonary atelectasis and fibrosis are typically seen as focal pulmonary interstitial opacities adjacent to thoracic spinal osteophytes. They are a relatively common finding in thoracic CT imaging. Epidemiology They are more common in older individuals. Pathology ...
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Pleural effusion

Pleural effusions are abnormal accumulations of fluid within the pleural space. They may result from a variety of pathological processes which overwhelm the pleura's ability to reabsorb fluid. Terminology "Pleural effusion" is commonly used as a catch-all term to describe any abnormal accumula...
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Atypical pneumonia

Atypical pneumonia refers to the radiological pattern associated with patchy inflammatory changes, often confined to the pulmonary interstitium, most commonly associated with atypical bacterial etiologies such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila. Viral a...
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Pleomorphic adenoma

Pleomorphic adenomas, also known by the misnomer benign mixed tumors (BMTs), are benign epithelial neoplasms related to glandular tissue. They have a small but real risk of malignant transformation. For a discussion of specific sites of pleomorphic adenoma, please refer to pleomorphic adeno...
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Lymphangitic carcinomatosis

Lymphangitic carcinomatosis, or lymphangitis carcinomatosa, is the term given to tumor spread through the lymphatics of the lung and is most commonly seen secondary to adenocarcinoma. Epidemiology The demographics will reflect that of the underlying malignancy (see below). Clinical presentati...
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Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare idiopathic condition characterized by widespread intra-alveolar deposition of spherical calcium phosphate microliths (calcospherites). Epidemiology A slight female predilection may be present in the familial form 2. Most cases are reported in A...
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Atypical ribs

Owing to their features, the first, eleventh and twelfth ribs are considered atypical ribs. Some authors also include the second and tenth ribs as atypical. Atypical features are summarized below: first rib strongest, broadest and most curved tubercle at the inner border marks the attachment ...
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Esophageal pseudodiverticulosis

Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis is an uncommon condition in which there are numerous small outpouchings within the esophageal wall. Epidemiology It is a rare condition, found in <1% of esophagograms. It may occur at any age, but is more common between 50 and 70 years. There is a sli...
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Manubriosternal joint

The manubriosternal joint, sometimes referred to as the sternomanubrial joint, is the articulation between the upper two parts of the sternum, the manubrium and sternal body.  It is at the level of the sternal angle or angle of Louis, which is at the 2nd costal cartilage and the intervertebral d...
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Tension hemothorax

A tension hemothorax refers to a hemothorax that exerts a considerable mass effect. It often results from massive intrathoracic hemorrhage and often causes ipsilateral lung compression and mediastinal displacement.
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Excessive dynamic airway collapse

Excessive dynamic airway collapse (EDAC) refers to a dynamic form of central airway obstruction characterized by a decrease of ≥50% (more recent publications suggest >70%) in the cross-sectional area of the tracheobronchial lumen. Diagnosis is usually confirmed by dynamic cross-sectional imaging...
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Typical pulmonary carcinoid tumors

Typical pulmonary carcinoid tumors are considered the more common and more benign low grade form of peripheral pulmonary carcinoid tumors. There is little or no known association between typical carcinoid tumors and tobacco use or exposure to other carcinogens which contrasts to atypical carcino...
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Langerhans cell histiocytosis

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare multisystem disease with a wide and heterogeneous clinical spectrum and variable extent of involvement.  Terminology Langerhans cell histiocytosis was previously known as histiocytosis X. The newer term is preferred as it is more descriptive of its...
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Hemothorax

A hemothorax (plural: hemothoraces), or rarely hematothorax, literally means blood within the chest, is a term usually used to describe a pleural effusion due to accumulation of blood. If a hemothorax occurs concurrently with a pneumothorax it is then termed a hemopneumothorax.  A tension hemot...
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Garland triad

Garland triad, also known as the 1-2-3 sign or pawnbroker's sign, is a lymph node enlargement pattern on chest radiographs which has been described in sarcoidosis: right paratracheal nodes right hilar nodes left hilar nodes Hilar lymphadenopathy is symmetrical and usually massive. These so-c...
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Air bronchogram

Air bronchogram refers to the phenomenon of air-filled bronchi (dark) being made visible by the opacification of surrounding alveoli (grey/white). It is almost always caused by a pathologic airspace/alveolar process, in which something other than air fills the alveoli. Air bronchograms will not ...
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Carcinoid tumors of the lung

Carcinoid tumors of the lung are a subgroup of neuroendocrine tumors of the lung, of lower grade than small cell carcinoma of the lung and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung.  For a general discussion, please refer to the article on carcinoid tumors. Pathology Classification Car...
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Costochondritis

Costochondritis (rare plural: costochondritides) is a common, usually self-limiting, painful inflammation of one or multiple costochondral junctions and/or the costosternal articulation. There is usually a distinct absence of swelling and chest wall palpation usually reproduces the pain.  It is...
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Intravenous drug user

Intravenous drug users (IVDU), also known as intravenous drug abusers (IVDA), are patients who inject recreational drugs, most commonly heroin, although many other agents are frequently injected, including cocaine, prescription opioids and methamphetamine.  Terminology Intravenous drug users f...
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Left pulmonary artery

The left pulmonary artery is one of the branches of the pulmonary trunk, branching at the level of the transthoracic plane of Ludwig. It is shorter than the right pulmonary artery and represents a direct posterior continuation of the pulmonary trunk. It arches posterosuperiorly over the superior...
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Right pulmonary artery

The right pulmonary artery is one of the branches of the pulmonary trunk, branching at the level of the transthoracic plane of Ludwig. It is longer than the left pulmonary artery and courses perpendicularly away from the pulmonary trunk and left pulmonary artery, between the superior vena cava a...
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Normal hilar position (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the normal position of the lung hila and pulmonary arteries is: RALPH Mnemonic Right Anterior, Left Posterior and Higher The left hilum is commonly higher than the right. The left pulmonary artery arches posterosuperiorly over the left mainstem bronchus, whereas the ri...
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Aberrant left pulmonary artery

Aberrant left pulmonary artery, also known as pulmonary sling, represents an anatomical variant characterized by the left pulmonary artery arising from the right pulmonary artery and passing above the right main bronchus and in between the trachea and esophagus to reach the left lung. It may lea...
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Hemithorax white-out (differential)

Complete white-out of a hemithorax on the chest x-ray has a limited number of causes. The differential diagnosis can be shortened further with one simple observation: the position of the trachea. Is it central, pulled or pushed from the side of opacification? Is there pulmonary volume loss or vo...
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Endobronchial valve

Endobronchial valves are one-way valves inserted via bronchoscopy that restrict airflow to a particular lung segment. They permit the drainage of airway secretions during the expiratory phase but restrict incoming airflow during inspiration 1. Endobronchial valves were originally designed as an...
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Esophageal carcinoma

Esophageal carcinoma is relatively uncommon. It tends to present with increasing dysphagia, initially to solids and progressing to liquids as the tumor increases in size, obstructing the lumen of the esophagus. Epidemiology Esophageal cancer is responsible for <1% of all cancers and 4-10% of a...
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Acute esophageal necrosis

Acute esophageal necrosis, sometimes known as Black esophagus or esophageal stroke, is a rare entity characterized by patchy or diffuse circumferential black pigmentation of the esophageal mucosa from ischemic necrosis. It is classically characterized by a striking endoscopic image of diffuse, ...
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Acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia

Acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia is an uncommon form of exogenous lipoid pneumonia and is typically caused by an episode of aspiration of a large quantity of a petroleum-based products. Radiographic features Chest radiograph Non-specific but may show areas of consolidation and with a lower lo...
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Aortic arch aneurysm

An aortic arch aneurysm is a less common form of thoracic aortic aneurysm and may account for around 10% of such aneurysms. Epidemiology There is a recognized male predilection with most patient's presenting around to 6th to 7th decades of life. Clinical presentation It can be clinically sil...
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Aortic arch

The aortic arch represents the direct continuation of the ascending aorta and represents a key area for a review of normal variant anatomy and a wide range of pathological processes that range from congenital anomalies to traumatic injury. Summary origin: continuation of the ascending aorta at...
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Neonatal pneumothorax

Neonatal pneumothorax describes pneumothoraces occurring in neonates. It is a life-threatening condition, associated with high morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis is a challenge especially when the amount of air is small and may accumulate along the anterior or medial pleural space. Epidemio...
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Pulmonary metastases

Pulmonary metastases refer to distant tumor spread from a variety of primary tumors to the lungs via the blood or lymphatics. This article primarily describes hematogenous pulmonary metastases while lymphangitic carcinomatosis is discussed separately. Epidemiology Lung metastases are common. ...
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Esophagus

The esophagus (plural: esophagi or esophaguses) is a muscular tube that conveys food and fluids from the pharynx to the stomach. It forms part of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Gross anatomy The esophagus is 23-37 cm long with a diameter of 1-2 cm and is divided into three parts: cervical:...
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Exogenous lipoid pneumonia

Exogenous lipoid pneumonia is a form of lipoid pneumonia. Please refer to the main article for a broader discussion.  In terms of the onset of the presentation, it can be divided into two different forms: acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia uncommon and typically caused by an episode of aspirati...
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Lipoid pneumonia

Lipoid pneumonia is a form of pneumonia associated with oily or lipid components within the pneumonitis component. This can either result from: aspiration of oily substances (exogenous lipoid pneumonia) or endogenous accumulation of lipid substances in the alveoli (endogenous lipoid pneu...
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Bubbly consolidation

Bubbly consolidation describes internal or central lucencies which represent normal aerated lung lobule within infarcted, consolidated, lung parenchyma. It is one of the highly specific imaging appearances of focal pulmonary hemorrhage or possibly pulmonary infarct secondary to pulmonary embolis...
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Bronchiectasis

Bronchiectasis (plural: bronchiectases) is defined as an irreversible abnormal dilatation of the bronchial tree. It has a variety of underlying causes, with a common etiology of chronic inflammation. High-resolution CT is the most accurate modality for diagnosis. Epidemiology As there are many...
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Invasive aspergillosis

Invasive aspergillosis is a form of pulmonary aspergillosis seen in patients with decreased immunity. It comprises a number of entities that are discussed individually: subacute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (previously known as chronic necrotizing aspergillosis (CNA) or semi-invasive a...
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Right-sided aortic arch

Right-sided aortic arch is a type of aortic arch variant characterized by the aortic arch coursing to the right of the trachea. Different configurations can be found based on the supra-aortic branching patterns, with the two most common patterns being the right-sided aortic arch with mirror imag...
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Peribronchovascular thickening

Peribronchovascular thickening is a broad imaging descriptive term commonly used to describe thickening of any one or more of the below: peribronchovascular interstitial thickening bronchial wall thickening: can be differentiated from true peribronchovascular thickening on cross-section...
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Thickening of bronchovascular bundles

Thickening of bronchovascular bundles is a chest CT imaging feature that can be observed in a number of entities. It has some overlap with the terms peribronchovascular interstitial thickening and peribronchovascular thickening. Pathology Causes Conditions that can result in bronchovascular b...
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Esophageal hiatus

The esophageal hiatus is the opening in the diaphragm through which the esophagus passes from the thoracic to the abdominal cavity. It is one of three apertures in the diaphragm and is located in the right crus. It is situated in the muscular part of the diaphragm at the level of T10 and is ell...
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Pulmonary nocardiosis

Pulmonary nocardiosis is an infrequent but severe opportunistic infection typified by necrotic or cavitary consolidation in an immunocompromised patient. It is caused by Nocardia spp. Epidemiology The condition is rare in general. Immunocompromised patients, particularly those with impaired ce...
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Bronchial arterial enlargement

Bronchial arterial enlargement or hypertrophy usually occurs as a result of bronchial pulmonary shunting and is a risk factor for hemoptysis. Pathology Bronchial arterial enlargement can result from a wide range of conditions, with more common causes including: underlying parenchymal patholog...
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Gravity-dependent atelectasis

Gravity-dependent atelectasis refers to a form of lung atelectasis that occurs in the dependent portions of the lungs. Pathology Gravity-dependent atelectasis occurs due to a combination of reduced alveolar volume and increased perfusion. Due to gravity, it usually has a dependent and subpleur...
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Takayasu arteritis

Takayasu arteritis (TAK), also known as idiopathic medial aortopathy or pulseless disease, is a granulomatous large vessel vasculitis that predominantly affects the aorta and its major branches. It may also affect the pulmonary arteries. The exact cause is not well known but the pathology is tho...
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Abscess

Abscesses are focal confined collections of suppurative inflammatory material and can be thought of as having three components 1: a central core consisting of necrotic inflammatory cells and local tissue peripheral halo of viable neutrophils surrounded by a 'capsule' with dilated blood...
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Hydatid disease

Hydatid cysts result from infection by the Echinococcus tapeworm species and can result in cyst formation anywhere in the body. Epidemiology Cystic echinococcosis has a worldwide geographical distribution. The Mediterranean basin is an important endemic area 6,7. Pathology There are two main...
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Hampton hump

Hampton hump refers to a dome-shaped, pleural-based opacification in the lung most commonly due to pulmonary embolism and lung infarction (it can also result from other causes of pulmonary infarction (e.g. vascular occlusion due to angioinvasive aspergillosis). Although uncommon, it can be seen...
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Extramedullary hematopoiesis

Extramedullary hematopoiesis is a response to the failure of erythropoiesis in the bone marrow. This article aims to a general approach on the condition, for a dedicated discussion for a particularly involved organ, please refer to the specific articles on:  extramedullary hematopoiesis in ...
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CT angiogram sign (lungs)

The CT angiogram sign refers to vessels appearing prominent on contrast-enhanced CT as they traverse an airless low attenuation portion of consolidated lung 1,2. This sign has been associated with 1,2: lung adenocarcinoma 3 pulmonary lymphoma infectious and post-obstructive pneumonia
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Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis

Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) is a recently described rare, benign entity. About half of cases are felt to be idiopathic, with the other half secondary to underlying diseases or conditions (e.g. transplantation). Idiopathic cases belong to the group of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia...
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Sharp mediastinum sign

The sharp mediastinum sign is a unique sign in neonatal chest x-rays for medial pneumothoraces or pneumomediastinum, especially as a complication to mechanical ventilation for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Radiographic features Plain radiograph As neonatal chest x-rays are taken with t...
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Thymic calcification

Thymic calcifications are rare findings usually associated with thymoma but are also seen in other pathologies. Neoplastic thymoma - more frequent in invasive thymoma 1 thymic carcinoma multilocular thymic cyst 2 calcified metastasis Non-neoplastic anterior mediastinal a...
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Thoracic aortic dilatation (differential)

There is a broad differential for thoracic aortic dilatation. Differential diagnosis senile ectasia hypertension post-stenotic dilatation, e.g. bicuspid aortic valve thoracic aortic aneurysm atherosclerosis (usually descending thoracic aorta) collagen disorders Marfa...
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Thoracic aortic aneurysm

Thoracic aortic aneurysms are relatively uncommon compared to abdominal aortic aneurysms. There is a wide range of causes, and the ascending aorta is the segment most commonly affected. Both CT-angiography and MR-angiography are the modalities of choice to image this condition. Terminology The...
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Hyparterial bronchus

A hyparterial bronchus refer to any bronchus originating inferior to the level of the pulmonary artery. Conversely, the right superior lobar bronchus can be referred to by its anatomical relationship to the pulmonary arteries as being eparterial. The term may be encountered in the classificatio...
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Paraseptal emphysema

Paraseptal emphysema refers to a morphological subtype of pulmonary emphysema located adjacent to the pleura and septal lines with a peripheral distribution within the secondary pulmonary lobule. The affected lobules are almost always subpleural, and demonstrate small focal lucencies up to 10 mm...
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Trachea

The trachea, known colloquially as the windpipe, connects the upper respiratory tract to the lungs via the tracheobronchial tree, enabling gas exchange. Gross anatomy The trachea is a tube-shaped structure consisting of 15-20 D-shaped cartilage rings anterolaterally bridged by annular ligament...
Article

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis, previously known as extrinsic allergic alveolitis, represents a group of immune-mediated pulmonary disorders characterized by an inflammatory and/or fibrotic reaction affecting the lung parenchyma and small airways. Its diagnosis relies on a constellation of findin...
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CT neck, chest, abdomen-pelvis (NCAP protocol)

The CT neck chest-abdomen-pelvis protocol aims to evaluate the neck, thoracic and abdominal structures using contrast in trauma imaging. The use of contrast facilitates the assessment of pathologies globally whilst minimizing dose by potentially disregarding a non-contrast scan.  Note: This art...
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Thymus

The thymus (plural: thymi) is a T-cell producing lymphoid organ in the anterior mediastinum that plays a role in the development of the immune system particularly, maturation of T-cells. It typically has a retrosternal location and hence may mimic retrosternal pathology. Gross anatomy It is re...
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Right middle lobe syndrome

Right middle lobe syndrome refers to chronic right middle lobe collapse, usually without an obstructing lesion (but not always). It is usually with associated bronchiectasis.  Epidemiology Right middle lobe syndrome is usually encountered in older adults, with a predilection for women (see Lad...
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Right middle lobe

The right middle lobe (RML) or simply the middle lobe is one of three lobes in the right lung. It is separated from the right upper lobe above by the horizontal fissure and the right lower lobe below by the right oblique fissure and is subdivided into two bronchopulmonary segments. Gross anatom...
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Pulmonary laceration

Pulmonary lacerations result from frank laceration of lung parenchyma secondary to trauma. There is almost always concurrent contusion. Epidemiology Contusions and lacerations follow blunt or penetrating chest trauma, and are almost always seen with other chest (and abdominal) injuries. While ...
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Cardiac MRI

Cardiac MRI consists of using MRI to study heart anatomy, physiology, and pathology. Advantages In comparison to other techniques, cardiac MRI offers: improved soft tissue definition protocol can be tailored to likely differential diagnoses a large number of sequences are available dynamic...

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