Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

2,961 results found
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Transversospinalis group

The transversospinalis group is the deep layer of the intrinsic back muscles. These muscles lie between the transverse and spinous processes and are grouped by length of the fascicles, as well as region covered. The groups are rotatores, multifidus, and semispinalis. Gross anatomy Rotatores T...
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Transversus abdominis muscle

The transversus abdominis muscle, named according to the direction of its muscle fibers, is one of the flat muscles that form the anterior abdominal wall. It is deep to the internal oblique muscle and ends in the anterior aponeurosis, which ultimately blends with the linea alba.  Summary origi...
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Transversus thoracis muscle

The transversus thoracis muscle is the most anterior muscle of the inner layer (external intercostal, internal intercostal and transversus thoracis) of the thoracic wall.   Gross anatomy The transversus thoracis is a thin band of muscle and tendon arising from the lower posterior surface of th...
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Trapezium

The trapezium (greater multangular) is one of the eight carpal bones of the hand. It is the most lateral (radial) bone of the distal row, located between the scaphoid and the first metacarpal bone . It articulates with the scaphoid proximally, the trapezoid medially, and the thumb and index meta...
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Trapezium fracture

Trapezium fractures are uncommon carpal bone injuries. They can either occur in isolation or combination with another carpal bony injury. Epidemiology Isolated fractures of the trapezium are only thought to account for 3-5% of all carpal fractures 1-2. Pathology They can be broadly classifie...
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Trapezium secondarium

The trapezium secondarium (or trapezium secundarium or secondary trapezium) is an accessory ossicle of the wrist. It can be seen adjacent to the tubercle of the trapezium superomedially 1,2. Embryology According to Pfitzner, the trapezium secondarium is one of four potential secondary ossifica...
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Trapezius muscle

The trapezius muscle is a large, broad superficial muscle of the posterior neck and back. It gains its name from its diamond shape. Along with sternocleidomastoid muscle, it is invested by the superficial layer of the deep cervical fascia, which splits around it.  Summary origin: superior nuch...
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Trapezoid

The trapezoid bone (also known as the os trapezoideum or the lesser multangular) is the smallest carpal bone in the distal row, sitting lateral to the capitate.  Gross anatomy Osteology The trapezoid is an irregular, boot-shaped bone. The dorsal surface is larger than the palmar surface and i...
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Trapezoid ligament

The trapezoid ligament is one of two components forming the coracoclavicular (CC) ligament. The conoid ligament is the other component. Gross anatomy The trapezoid ligament is a broad quadrilateral ligament that is quite thin. Its positioned almost horizontally. It is the anterolateral part of...
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Trauma films (summary approach)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Trauma films are ubiquitous in an orthopedic attachment and also in the Emergency Department. In most cases, a trauma film will come with two views. It is important that you review both films because in some cases a fractu...
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Traumatic neuroma

Traumatic neuromas may occur from acute or chronic injury to a nerve. Clinical presentation The patient presents with a focal area of pain and tenderness to palpation. There should be a history of injury to the area. Surgery is a common source of traumatic neuromas (e.g. ilioinguinal pain post...
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Trethowan sign

The Trethowan sign is used to diagnose slipped capital femoral epiphysis (also called slipped upper femoral epiphysis). In this sign, the line of Klein passes above the femoral head. It is best done on both AP and true lateralcit projections. On the AP view of a normal hip, the Klein line inter...
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Triangular fibrocartilage complex

The triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) is a complex structure that is a major contributor to the stability of the wrist.  Gross anatomy The TFCC is located on the ulnar aspect of the wrist joint between the ulna and the lunate and triquetrum of the proximal carpal row. It has an elongate...
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Triangular fibrocartilage complex injury

Triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) injuries may be traumatic or degenerative in nature. The TFCC is a complex structure consisting of the triangular fibrocartilage (TFC) disk proper, ulnomeniscal homologue and numerous ligaments and tendons. Clinical presentation Traumatic injuries are u...
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Triangular ligament

The triangular ligaments grouped with the ulnar collateral ligament and meniscal homologue, comprising the ulnar-sided components of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC). The triangular ligament attaches triangular fibrocartilage to the ulnar tip and fovea. The triangular ligament is co...
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Triangular space of cruciate ligaments

Triangular space of cruciate ligaments (TSC) is defined as the potential extrasynovial space between anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments of the knee joint. Gross anatomy Boundaries anteriorly: anterior cruciate ligament posteriorly: posterior cruciate ligament inferiorly: tibial plate...
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Triceps bony avulsion

Avulsion injury of the triceps tendon is an uncommon injury. It is one of the least common injuries to elbow but is nevertheless commoner than an intramuscular triceps tear. Clinical presentation Patients usually usually present with regional pain, swelling and inability to extend to the elbow...
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Triceps brachii

The triceps brachii, which often referred to simply as the triceps is a three-headed muscle in the posterior compartment of the arm. Summary origin long head: infraglenoid tubercle of the scapula medial head: posterior humerus, inferior to the radial groove, medial intermuscular septum late...
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Triceps coxae

The triceps coxae is the tricipital (three headed) collection of 3 of the muscles in the posterior hip which act together on the hip, primarily to laterally rotate the extended thigh. It comprises (in order from superior to inferior) the superior gemellus, obturator internus and inferior gemellu...
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Triceps surae

Triceps surae is another term used for the calf muscles, more specifically two of the three muscles of the superficial posterior compartment of the leg: medial and lateral heads of the gastrocnemius muscle soleus muscle The group of muscles are innervated by the tibial nerve and form the Achi...
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Triceps tendinopathy

Triceps tendinopathy is the least common tendon injury of the elbow, and most commonly presents as rupture.  Epidemiology There is a male predominance 1. Pathology Triceps tendinopathy can range from tendinosis through to complete rupture 1,2. Rupture most commonly occurs at the osteotendin...
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Trichilemmomas

Trichilemmomas are important due to their invariable association with Cowden syndrome. They are a benign cutaneous neoplasm that usually present on the head or face as a smooth or verrucoid lesion, and may be single or multiple. They may be mistaken for a basal cell carcinoma.
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Trident acetabulum

Trident acetabulum is an appearance which can be seen in several skeletal dysplasias 1. It is characterized by small bony spurs at the medial and lateral acetabular margins with a more subtle central spur, resembling a trident, the three-pronged spear of classical Greece 1. The trident is most ...
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Trident hand

A trident hand is a description where the hands are short with stubby fingers, with a separation between the middle and ring fingers.  The appearance mimics a trident, the three-pronged spear of classical Greece. The trident is most commonly associated with the sea god Poseidon in Greek mytholo...
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Trigger finger

A trigger finger is a type of stenosing tenosynovitis. It develops due to repetitive microinjury from frequent flexion-extension movements of the fingers. Clinical presentation A patient with trigger finger finds it difficult to straighten or bend the affected finger. The finger transiently ge...
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Trigger thumb

Trigger thumb (or flexor pollicis longus stenosing tenosynovitis) is a specific type of trigger finger involving the thumb. Clinical presentation May present as a transient locking of the thumb in flexion, followed by a painful snapping sensation during extension Radiographic features Ultras...
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Trigger toe

A trigger toe (or hallux saltans if it involves the 1st toe) refers to a uncommon situation where active plantar flexion causes the toes to catch in flexion and the patient is then unable to extend them. It can arise from a number of pathologies and if it involves the great (1st) toe a common pa...
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Trimalleolar fracture

Trimalleolar fractures refer to a three-part fracture of the ankle. The fractures involve the medial malleolus, the posterior aspect of the tibial plafond (referred to as the posterior malleolus) and the lateral malleolus. Having three parts, this is a more unstable fracture and may be associate...
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Triphalangeal thumb

Triphalangeal thumb is considered a form of pre-axial polydactyly. Epidemiology Triphalangeal thumbs have an incidence of 1 in 25,000 7.  Pathology A triphalangeal thumb, as the name implies, has three phalanges instead of the usual two. There is an autosomal dominant genetic transmission 8....
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Triplane fracture

Triplane or triplanar fractures are of the distal tibia only occurring in adolescents. As the physiological closure of the physeal plate begins medially, the lateral (open) physis is prone to this type of fracture. The name is due to the fact of the fracture expanding both in frontal and lateral...
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Triquetral fracture

Triquetral fractures are carpal bone fractures generally occuring on the dorsal surface of the triquetrum. The triquetral may be fractured by means of impingement from the ulnar styloid, shear forces, or avulsion from strong ligamentous attachments. They are the second commonest carpal bone frac...
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Triquetrum

The triquetrum (os triquetrum) is one of the carpal bones and forms part of the proximal carpal row. Gross anatomy Osteology The triquetrum is wedge-shaped carpal bone located between the lunate and the pisiform. It has an oval facet for articulation with the pisiform. Articulations along w...
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Triradiate cartilage

The triradiate cartilage is the Y- shaped epiphyseal plate that occurs at the junction where the ischium, ilium and pubis meet in the skeletally immature skeleton.   The vertical component of the "Y" is the meeting of the ischium and pubic bone, the anterior arm is the junction of the ilium and...
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Triscaphe joint

The triscaphe joint is the shared joint between the scaphoid, trapezium and trapezoid bones in the wrist. This joint is also referred to by its much longer name, the scaphotrapeziotrapezoid (STT) joint. Related pathology This joint may be fused as an alternative to scapholunate fusion in treat...
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Trochanteric bursitis

Trochanteric bursitis results from the trochanteric bursa becoming irritated. Terminology Previously trochanteric bursitis has been attributed as the major cause of lateral hip pain but now the term greater trochanteric pain syndrome is preferred because most commonly the cause of lateral hip ...
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Trochanteric fracture

A trochanteric fracture is a fracture involving the greater and/or lesser trochanters of the femur. Classification Fractures in these regions can be classified as: intertrochanteric pertrochanteric: intertrochanteric, involving both trochanters subtrochanteric greater trochanteric avulsio...
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Trough line sign

The trough line sign is a sign of posterior shoulder dislocation on AP films.  In a posterior dislocation, the anterior aspect of the humeral head becomes impacted against the posterior glenoid rim. With sufficient force, this causes a compression fracture on the anterior aspect of the humeral ...
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Tuberculosis (musculoskeletal manifestations)

Musculoskeletal tuberculosis is always secondary to a primary lesion in the lung. Epidemiology The prevalence of the disease is around 30 million globally and 1-3% of the 30 million have involvement of their bones and/or joints. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is responsible for almost all of the c...
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Tuberculous arthropathy

Tuberculous arthropathy is a type of musculoskeletal manifestation of tuberculosis (TB) and a common cause of infectious arthritis in developing countries. Any pathological joint lesion where the exact diagnosis is equivocal should be considered tubercular in origin unless proven otherwise. Ple...
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Tuberculous dactylitis

Tuberculous dactylitis, also known as spina ventosa, is a rare skeletal manifestation of tuberculosis where the short tubular bones (i.e. phalanges, metacarpals, metatarsals) are affected. Epidemiology Tuberculous osteitis is one of the commonest bacterial osteitides. Typically the dactylitis ...
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Tuberculous spondylitis

Tuberculous spondylitis, also known as Pott disease, refers to vertebral body osteomyelitis and intervertebral diskitis from tuberculosis (TB). The spine is the most frequent location of musculoskeletal tuberculosis, and commonly related symptoms are back pain and lower limb weakness/paraplegia....
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Tuberculous spondylitis versus pyogenic spondylitis

Tuberculous spondylitis and pyogenic spondylitis are both common causes of spinal infection. Imaging findings of these 2 diseases can be challenging to distinguish, yet crucial because the treatments for these infections are particularly different 2. Radiographic features Useful distinguishing...
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Tuberculum sellae

The tuberculum sellae is the ridged process of the sphenoid bone which forms the anterior wall of the sella turcica. Gross anatomy Relations The tuberculum sellae forms the anterior wall of the sella turcica, which houses the pituitary gland. It is an elongated ridge located immediately poste...
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Tug lesion (musculoskeletal)

A tug lesion in musculoskeletal imaging is a term given to describe a bony traction reaction at a muscle attachment site likened to that of the "tug effect. They are benign and are placed as do not touch lesions. Notable sites include: distal femur: cortical desmoid posterior tibia: soleal li...
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Tumoral calcinosis

Tumoral calcinosis is a rare familial condition characterized by painless, periarticular masses. The term should be strictly used to refer to a disease caused by a hereditary metabolic dysfunction of phosphate regulation associated with massive periarticular calcinosis and should not be used to ...
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Tumors of muscular origin

There are a number of tumors of muscular origin, which overall are relatively uncommon, representing only 1.7% of benign soft tissue tumors, and 10.3% of malignant soft tissue tumors1.  The tumors can be divided according to the type of muscle fiber: Skeletal muscle origin benign rhabdomyoma...
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Tumors of the chest wall (differentials)

Tumors of the chest wall are varied, some of which are found most often in this region. They can be divided into benign and malignant tumors and into those which arise in the ribcage and those of soft tissue density. Benign Benign tumors include 1,3,4: soft tissue hemangioma: common lymphan...
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Tumors that metastasise to bone (mnemonic)

Tumors that metastasise to bone may be remembered using the mnemonic "lead kettle" spelled PBKTL (lead is Pb on the Periodic Table). PB-KTL Mnemonic P: prostate B: breast K: kidney T: thyroid L: lung For females, breast and lung are the most common primary sites; nearly 80% of cancers th...
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Turf toe

Turf toe is an extreme traumatic dorsiflexion (hyperextension) injury of the toe results in plantar plate injury from sprain to complete tear of the plantar plate capsuloligamentous complex and allows unrestricted range of motion of the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint. It is common in prof...
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Turner syndrome

Turner syndrome, also known as 45XO or 45X, is the most common of the sex chromosome abnormalities in females.  Epidemiology The incidence is estimated at 1:2000-5000 of live births, although the in utero rate is much higher (1-2% of conceptions) due to a significant proportion of fetuses with...
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Twelfth rib

The twelfth rib is an atypical rib. It is the shortest rib, and one of two floating ribs. Gross anatomy Osteology The 12th rib has a single facet on its head for articulation with the T12 vertebra. It has a short neck and no tubercle. It also lacks a costal groove and angle. internal surface ...
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Two-slice-touch rule (knee MRI)

The two-slice-touch rule is a sign on MRI of the knee used to increase the sensitivity of diagnosing meniscal tears. This rule states a meniscal tear is present if abnormal findings are present on two or more images - these do not have to be contiguous, e.g. can occur on sagittal and coronal sl...
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Tympanic part of temporal bone

The tympanic part of the temporal bone is situated inferiorly to the squamous part and anteriorly to the mastoid part. The tympanic part surrounds the external auditory meatus, forming the anterior wall, floor and some of the posterior wall of the bony external acoustic meatus. The lateral bord...
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Type 1 pelvic resection

Type 1 pelvic resections are complex surgeries that involve removing part of the pelvis, usually to resect malignant tumor. Type 1 pelvic resections remove a varying amount of the iliac bone, and are classified in general terms as "partial" or "complete", depending on how much of the iliac bone...
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Type II collagenopathy

Type II collagenopathies are a group of conditions collectively characterized by abnormalities in synthesis of collagen type II. This usually occurs due to a mutation in the COL2A1 gene. Entities that fall under this group include: achondrogenesis type II platyspondylic lethal skeletal dyspla...
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Typical cervical vertebrae

Of the seven cervical vertebrae, C3 through C6 have typical anatomy, while C7 looks very similar. C1 (atlas) and C2 (axis) have very distinct anatomical features. For a basic anatomic description of the structure a generic vertebra, see vertebrae. Gross anatomy small, oval-sized vertebral bodi...
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Typical ribs

Typical ribs are those numbered 2 to 10 with ribs 1, 11 and 12 considered atypical. Gross anatomy A typical rib is long and flat. They contain a: head neck tubercle shaft angle Ribs have a rounded, smooth superior border. The inferior border is thin and sharp.  Osteology Head The head...
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Ulna

The ulna (plural: ulnae) is one of the two long bones of the forearm. It is located medially in the supinated anatomic position. It has a larger proximal end and tapers to a smaller distal end (opposite to the radius).  Gross anatomy Prominent features of the ulna include: proximal: olecranon...
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Ulnar artery

The ulnar artery is a terminal branch of the brachial artery, arising at the proximal aspect of the forearm. Along with the radial artery, it is one of the main arteries of the forearm.  Summary origin: terminal branch of the brachial artery location: inferior aspect of the cubital fossa sup...
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Ulnar dimelia

Ulnar dimelia or mirror hand syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly of the upper limb characterized by absence of the radial ray (including thumb), duplication of the ulna and duplication of the ulnar halves of the carpals, metacarpals and phalanges 1. Pathology Embryology The embryology of mi...
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Ulnar hemimelia

Ulnar hemimelia is a rare congenital upper limb anomaly characterized by complete or partial absence of the ulna bone. Epidemiology Incidence is estimated at 1/100,000-150,000 live births, with a male to female ratio of 3:2. Associations Ulnar hemimelia may be associated with other skeletal ...
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Ulnar impaction syndrome

Ulnar impaction syndrome, also known as ulnar abutment or ulnocarpal loading, is a degenerative wrist condition caused by the ulnar head impacting upon the ulnar-sided carpus with the injury to the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC). Epidemiology Ulnar impaction syndrome most commonly pr...
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Ulnar impingement syndrome

Ulnar impingement syndrome is a wrist condition caused by a shortened distal ulna impinging on the distal radius proximal to the sigmoid notch. The syndrome is distinct from ulnar impaction syndrome, which typically occurs due to a long ulna (positive ulnar variance) impacting upon the triangula...
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Ulnar nerve

The ulnar nerve is one of the terminal branches of the brachial plexus and has motor and sensory supply to the forearm and hand. Gross anatomy Origin The ulnar nerve originates as a terminal branch of the medial cord of the brachial plexus with nerve root fibers from C8-T1. Course Arm In t...
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Ulnar nerve dislocation

Ulnar nerve dislocation is an uncommon cause of pain and paresthesias in the ulnar nerve distribution. It occurs if the ulnar nerve subluxates and then dislocates over the anterior aspect of the medial epicondyle during flexion and extension of the elbow.  Pathology Ulnar nerve dislocation occ...
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Ulnar-sided wrist impaction and impingement syndromes

There are several distinct ulnar-sided wrist impaction and impingement syndromes. Underlying anatomical causes exist for each syndrome, however, repetitive or excessive use of the forearm and wrist can also contribute. ulnar impaction syndrome: positive ulnar variance ulnar impingement syndrom...
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Ulnar styloid fracture

Ulnar styloid fractures occur in association with ~60% of distal radius fractures. Most of these are small avulsion fractures involving the tip of the ulnar styloid. Pathology Usually, this kind of fracture occurs as the result of a fall on an outstretched arm and is often associated with a di...
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Ulnar styloid impaction syndrome

Ulnar styloid impaction syndrome refers to wrist pain due to a long ulnar styloid process impacting upon the triquetral bone. Pathology An unlar styloid >6mm in length is commonly regarded as being long. Impaction results in chondromalacia of the opposing articular surfaces, i.e. the proximal ...
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Ulnar variance

Ulnar variance (also known as Hulten variance) refers to the relative lengths of the distal articular surfaces of the radius and ulna.  Ulnar variance may be: neutral (both the ulnar and radial articular surfaces at the same level) positive (ulna projects more distally) negative (ulna projec...
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Ulnomeniscal homologue

The ulnomeniscal homologue (UMH) is an obliquely oriented, fibrocartilaginous structure, that forms part of the ulnar collateral ligament complex (ULC) of the wrist. Gross anatomy The UMH is located between the ulnar styloid process and the triquetrum. It adheres to the ulnar joint capsule and...
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Ultrasound-guided biopsy

Ultrasound-guided biopsy is one form of image-guided biopsy, typically performed by a radiologist. It is the most common form of image-guided biopsy, offering convenience and real-time dynamic observation with echogenic markers on cannulae allowing for precise placement. It can potentially be u...
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Ultrasound of the elbow

Ultrasound of the elbow allows high-resolution imaging of elbow anatomy while simultaneously allowing dynamic evaluation of the joint, tendons, and ligaments. Approach There are multiple possible approaches to imaging the elbow with ultrasound. A typical protocol is as follows 1: Anterior elb...
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Ultrasound of the hip (adult)

There are several approaches to ultrasound examination of the adult hip.  Anterior approach Patient positioning supine with the hip in mild external rotation Planes sagittal oblique plane parallel to the long axis of the femoral neck to assess femoral head and neck and for any joint effusio...
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Ultrasound of the knee

Ultrasound of the knee allows high-resolution imaging of superficial knee anatomy while simultaneously allowing dynamic evaluation of some of the tendons and ligaments. Knee ultrasound is somewhat limited compared with ultrasound examinations of other joints because the cruciate ligaments and th...
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Ultrasound of the shoulder

Ultrasound of the shoulder is a fast, relatively cheap and dynamic way to examine the rotator cuff and is particularity useful in diagnosing: shoulder impingement shoulder instability rotator cuff disorders The examination requires attention to technique and appropriate patient positioning. ...
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Ultrasound of the wrist

Ultrasound is a useful imaging modality for evaluation of the wrist, allowing high-resolution imaging of anatomy while simultaneously allowing dynamic evaluation of the joint, tendons, and ligaments. Approach There are multiple possible approaches to imaging the wrist with ultrasound. The exam...
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Umbilical hernia

Umbilical hernias are the most common ventral hernia and occur in the midline. Epidemiology Ten times more common in females 2 and represent ~5% of all abdominal hernias 4. Clinical presentation Umbilical hernias present in the midline as painless or painful mass.  Pathology Umbilical hern...
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Uncinate process of the cervical spine

The uncinate process of the cervical spine is a hook-shaped process found bilaterally on the superolateral margin of the cervical vertebral bodies of C3-C7. The uncinate processes are more anteriorly positioned in the upper cervical spine and more posteriorly location in the lower cervical spin...
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Uncovertebral joint

Uncovertebral joints, also called Luschka’s joints, are seen bilaterally between adjacent cervical vertebrae, identified by the cat ear shaped uncinate processes of the C3-7 vertebrae (C1 and C2 have no uncinate processes). Gross anatomy Articulations The articulation forms between the uncina...
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Undifferentiated spondyloarthritis

Undifferentiated spondyloarthritis (uSpA), also known as undifferentiated arthritis, is a non-specific mono- or polyarthropathy that lacks the clinical, serological and radiological features that would allow specific diagnosis. It often turns out to be an early presentation of a more well known ...
Article

Unfused spinous process

Unfused spinous process, which is really failure of fusion of the neural arch, is a relatively common anatomical variant and is part of the spectrum of spina bifida occulta.  This should be differentiated from accessory ossicles of the spinous process, which appear after non-fusion of the secon...
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Unfused sternal body segments

Fusion of sternal body segments is usually complete by 25 years of age. But non-fusion of sternal body segments can be seen in older age group.
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Unicameral bone cyst

Unicameral bone cysts (UBC), also known as simple bone cysts, are common benign non-neoplastic lucent bony lesions that are seen mainly in childhood and typically remain asymptomatic. They account for the S (simple bone cyst) in FEGNOMASHIC, the commonly used mnemonic for lytic bone lesions.  E...
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Unilateral facet dislocation

Unilateral facet dislocation is a relatively stable type of facet dislocation. Pathology Mechanism Flexion/distraction associated with rotation. The inferior articular facet of vertebral above moves over the superior facet of the vertebral below and becomes locked. It usually affects C4-C5 or...
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Upper extremity dislocations

Upper extremity dislocations are relatively common on account of the great range of motion the upper limb is capable of (a general principle is that the greater the range of motion of a joint, the more prone it is to dislocation). In many instances dislocations are associated with fractures eith...
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Upper extremity fractures

The upper limb sustains a wide variety of fractures that range significantly in demographics, treatment and functional impact.  clavicle clavicular fracture acromio-clavicular dislocation scapula blade of scapula fracture glenoid fracture acromial fracture coracoid process fracture hume...
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Upper limb anatomy

Upper limb anatomy encompasses the anatomy of the shoulder, arm, elbow, forearm, wrist and hand. This anatomy section promotes the use of the Terminologia Anatomica, the global standard for correct gross anatomical nomenclature. 
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Upper limb radiography

Upper limb radiography is the radiological investigation of the shoulder girdle, humerus, ulna, radius, carpals and metacarpals of the hand. It is often utilized in the context of trauma to rule out fractures and dislocations. 
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Upper subscapular nerve

The upper subscapular nerve, also known as the short or superior subscapular nerve, arises from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus and supplies the subscapularis muscle. Gross anatomy Origin The upper subscapular nerve branches from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus with fibers...
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Vacuum phenomenon in shoulder

Vacuum phenomenon in the shoulder refers to the presence of intra-articular gas in the shoulder joint. It is a very common occurrence, particularly in external rotation. This can cause circular or linear areas of low signal intensity on GRE MR images of the shoulder obtained with external rotati...
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Valgus extension overload syndrome

Valgus extension overload syndrome, also known as pitcher's elbow, refers to a constellation of symptoms and pathologies commonly seen in overhead throwing athletes secondary to high repetitive tensile, shear and compressive forces generated by the overhead throwing motion. The syndrome may cor...
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Valgus vs varus

The terms valgus and varus refer to angulation (or bowing) within the shaft of a bone or at a joint. It is determined by the distal part being more medial or lateral than it should be. Whenever the distal part is more lateral, it is called valgus. Whenever the distal part is more medial, it is ...
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Van Buchem disease

Van Buchem disease (VBD) is an extremely rare hereditary sclerosing bone dysplasia, also known as hyperostosis corticalis generalisata. This disease is characterized most notably by mandibular enlargement and thickening of the skull. Epidemiology Less than 30 cases have been reported in the li...

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