LAST CHANCE: X-ray Interpretation: Elbow Injuries - Half price course offer ends this Sunday!

Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

472 results found
Article

Fundoplication

Fundoplications are forms of antireflux surgery used as a second line of treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease after failure of medical treatment and the first line of treatment of paraesophageal hernia. Technique A gastric fold is wrapped around the distal esophagus which enforces the ...
Article

Gallbladder wall thickening

Thickening of the gallbladder wall, usually considered >3 mm, is a non-specific sign of various conditions. Pathology Gallbladder wall thickening can be caused by inflammatory, benign, and malignant etiologies. Pseudothickening caused by the normal postprandial state of the contracted gallblad...
Article

Gamma nail

The gamma nail or trochanteric nail is an osteosynthetic implant designed to treat proximal femoral fractures in the trochanter area with a closed intramedullary fixation method. The gamma nail consists of a funnel-shaped intramedullary nail with slight bending to reflect proximal femoral diaph...
Article

Geographic appearance

Geographic appearance is a term used in imaging, and other clinical fields (e.g. histopathology) to describe lesions with a well-circumscribed margins with adjacent tissues.  The term derives from the somewhat similar appearance of the outline of countries on a map or the clear demarcation forme...
Article

Giant breast masses

Many patients, particularly in developing countries, can present late with giant breast masses. They may be single or multiple and either benign or malignant. Many of these conditions are indistinguishable on physical examination alone. Some of these lesions require mastectomy while others can b...
Article

Gissane angle

Gissane angle, also known as the "critical angle", is an angular measurement made directly inferior to the lateral process of the talus. It is formed by the downward and upward slopes of the calcaneal superior surface. It is better seen on a lateral plain film of the calcaneus and hindfoot. Its ...
Article

Glioblastoma vs cerebral metastasis

Differentiating a glioblastoma (GBM) from a cerebral metastasis is a frequent challenge, with profound surgical, workup and treatment implications. Unfortunately distinguishing between the two entities is not always straightforward.  This article addresses helpful imaging features to aid in dis...
Article

Global cortical atrophy scale

The global cortical atrophy (GCA) scale, also known as the Pasquier scale, is a qualitative rating system developed to assess cerebral atrophy, especially in the context of neurodegenerative diseases. It evaluates atrophy in 13 brain regions assessed separately in each hemisphere and resulting i...
Article

Gluteoplasty

A gluteoplasty, also called gluteal augmentation, is a surgical procedure performed to improve the shape and the size of the buttocks. Indications A cosmetic desire to boost the volume and shape of the buttocks. Surgical technique Many types of procedures are performed 1: subfascial gluteal...
Article

Gluteus minimus/medius calcific tendinopathy barbotage (technique)

Gluteus minimus/medius calcific tendinopathy barbotage is a procedure performed under ultrasound guidance with the aim of reducing the bulk of tendon calcification, in a similar fashion to that performed for rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy.  Indications gluteus minimus/medius tendon calcifi...
Article

Gold standard

The gold standard (occasionally, erroneously, called the golden standard) is the term used in medicine for the test (imaging, blood test, biopsy, etc.) that is felt to be the current best for diagnosis of a particular condition. The gold standard for any specific disease is not set in stone and ...
Article

Greater trochanteric bursa injection (technique)

Greater femoral trochanteric bursa injections under ultrasound-guidance ensures the injectate is accurately given into the bursa. The greater trochanteric bursa is the largest of the bursae surrounding the proximal femur, with the others including the subgluteus minimus and subgluteus medius bur...
Article

Groin pain

Groin pain is a symptom manifesting in a wide spectrum of clinical disorders and diseases in athletes and non-athletes. The Doha agreement in 2014 identified and classified groin pain in athletes and defined the following clinical entities 2: adductor-related, pubic-related, inguinal-related a...
Article

Ground-glass opacification

Ground-glass opacification/opacity (GGO) is a descriptive term referring to an area of increased attenuation in the lung on computed tomography (CT) with preserved bronchial and vascular markings. It is a non-specific sign with a wide etiology including infection, chronic interstitial disease an...
Article

Gynecological ultrasound set-pieces

The clinical history will nearly always lead to a short differential or the answer. Show off to the examiner that you have a structured approach to reporting and managing the patient. Structured approach uterus: size, version and shape (normal or variant which you should elaborate on and say w...
Article

Hematospermia

Hematospermia (less commonly hemospermia) refers to the presence of blood in semen or ejaculatory fluid. It is a symptom that can cause great anxiety in patients despite usually being of benign etiology. Pathology Etiology Benign urogenital infections including sexually transmitted disease, ...
Article

Hematuria (pediatric)

Hematuria in a child is evaluated differently than in an adult in two main respects: there is a lower likelihood of a malignancy (renal or bladder) causing the hematuria preference is given to nonionizing radiation Pathology Hematuria can be considered in three main forms: "gross" hematuria...
Article

Hemorrhage exclusion sign (prostate)

The hemorrhage exclusion sign can be a useful MRI finding following prostate biopsy. Pathology The normal prostate produces high concentrations of citrate, which among other properties, acts as an anticoagulant 1. As tumor cells are dysfunctional, they will produce lower levels of citrate than...
Article

Hemorrhage on MRI

Hemorrhage on MRI has highly variable imaging characteristics that depend on both the age of the blood, the type of hemoglobin present (oxy- deoxy- or met-), on whether or not the red blood cell walls are intact and the specifics of the MRI sequence. Although MRI is often thought of as not being...
Article

Hemorrhagic infarct vs intracerebral hemorrhage

Hemorrhagic infarct or hemorrhagic transformation of an infarct is seen following breakdown of the lamina of the microvessels. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) may overlap with a hemorrhagic infarct and hence needs to be differentiated as the line of treatment will vary. Differentiating points ...
Article

Hemorrhagic intracranial tumors

Various types of brain tumors may cause hemorrhage. Increased tumor vascularization with dilated, thin-walled vessels and tumor necrosis are the most important mechanisms of hemorrhage. The list includes: glioblastoma pituitary adenoma ependymoma central neurocytoma choroid plexus carcinoma...
Article

Hair artifact

Hair artifact and hair-product artifacts are artifacts produced by the presence of the patient's hair, hair accessories (e.g. hair clip) and hair products (e.g. shampoo) within the field of view during acquisition of an image, which can affect all modalities to varying degrees. For example, in m...
Article

Hand radiograph (checklist)

The hand radiograph checklist is just one of the many pathology checklists that can be used when reporting to ensure that you always actively exclude pathology that is commonly missed; this is particularly helpful in the examination setting, e.g. the FRCR 2B rapid-reporting. Radiograph Hand ra...
Article

Head and neck cancer therapy response interpretation (Hopkins criteria)

The head and neck cancer therapy response interpretation (Hopkins criteria) is a qualitative system of interpretation for therapy response assessment using PET-CT. Background Widely used options for therapy response assessment are clinical examination, histopathology, CT and MR imaging, howeve...
Article

Head ultrasound

Head ultrasound (HUS), also called cranial ultrasound (CUS), is obtained for the diagnosis and follow-up of premature and sick neonates. Advantages Head ultrasound has the advantages of: accessibility mobility, i.e. bedside scanning at the NICU and neonatal ward requiring no sedation enabl...
Article

Hematemesis

Hematemesis is the vomiting of blood, it is an indication of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Mortality is generally near to 10% 1,2,4. Please see the main article on upper gastrointestinal bleeding for more detail.  Treatment and prognosis In patients with moderate to severe hematemesis, life...
Article

Hepatobiliary contrast agents and LI-RADS

LI-RADS (Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System) is both a set of standardized terminology and a classification system for imaging findings in liver lesions. The LI-RADS score for a liver lesion is an indication of its relative risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The classification system ...
Article

Hickam's dictum

Hickam's dictum is usually stated as "patients can have as many diseases as they damn (or darn) well please". This aphorism has been attributed to John Hickam (1914-1970) an American physician, who was Chair of the Department of Medicine at the University of Indiana 1.  The importance of this d...
Article

Hindfoot equinus

Hindfoot equinus describes abnormal plantarflexion (calcaneotibial angle >90°)  of the foot that occurs in the hindfoot. It occurs in congenital talipes equinovarus and congenital vertical talus.
Article

Hip joint injection (technique)

Hip joint injections can be performed with a variety of image guidance, including fluoroscopy and ultrasound, which are used to administer MRI arthrogram injectate, or a steroid containing anesthetic arthrogram injectate.   Indications MRI labral injury anesthetic pain - arthropathy i.e. os...
Article

HRCT chest

High-resolution CT (HRCT) of the chest, also referred to as HRCT chest or HRCT of the lungs, refers to a CT technique in which thin-slice chest images are obtained and post-processed in a high-spatial-frequency reconstruction algorithm. This technique obtains images with exquisite lung detail, w...
Article

HRCT chest: expiration (technique)

Expiratory high-resolution CT (HRCT) imaging corresponds to an additional CT acquisition performed as part of the HRCT chest protocol. It represents a scan performed with the patient on supine and images obtained at the end-expiration.  It is a useful method for detecting small airways obstruct...
Article

Hyperechoic liver lesions

A hyperechoic liver lesion on ultrasound can arise from a number of entities, both benign and malignant. A benign hepatic hemangioma is the most common entity encountered, but in patients with atypical findings or risk for malignancy, other entities must be considered. Benign hepatic hemangiom...
Article

Hysterosalpingogram

Hysterosalpingogram (HSG) is a fluoroscopic examination of the uterus and the Fallopian tubes, most commonly used in the investigation of infertility or recurrent spontaneous abortions. Indications Infertility to assess uterine morphology and tubal patency. Contraindications pregnancy activ...
Article

Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: HRCT chest approach

The approach to HRCT chest in patients with suspected idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) is with the aim to: make sure an appropriate study requested i.e. HRCT chest with optimal individually adjusted protocol and ensure adequacy of the HRCT chest quality (see imaging protocol below) meti...
Article

Ileostomy

An Ileostomy is a surgical method in which loop of the distal small bowel is connected and opened through the outer abdominal wall to artificially created a connection and bypass large bowel loops. Pathology Types There are two types of ileostomies : permanent end ileostomy A permanent end ...
Article

Iliofemoral line

The iliofemoral line is traced on an AP pelvis projection. It is a curvilinear line, along the outer surface of the ilium, through the superior acetabular rim and the femoral neck. It should be bilaterally symmetrical. Asymmetry may be the result of congenital dysplasia, slipped femoral capital...
Article

Imaging in liver transplantation

Imaging in liver transplantation is aimed to evaluate donor and recipient for successful transplantation and its outcome. Pre-transplant evaluation Donor volume of liver parenchymal disease (diffuse or focal) vascular anatomy arterial variations venous variations biliary anatomy Recipie...
Article

Imaging of gunshot injuries

Gunshot injuries often require imaging assessment, and this evaluation has both clinical relevance (assessment of organ damage, surgical planning, and prognostication), and often also forensic implications. Epidemiology Incidence of gunshot injuries to the head is increasing in some countries,...
Article

Incidental lung nodules

Incidental lung nodules are encountered commonly in normal clinical practice on CT. The risk of developing cancer in very small nodules (<5 mm) is very low. However, clear-cut recommendations are still not in place with high variation in practice amongst reporting radiologists 1. As a result, it...
Article

Incidental thyroid nodules

Incidental thyroid nodules, sometimes called thyroid incidentalomas, are discrete lesions in the thyroid gland found on cross-sectional imaging performed for indications other than thyroid evaluation. They are common but occasionally represent thyroid cancer 1. This article discusses the epidemi...
Article

Increased retrosternal airspace

Increased retrosternal airspace is an indicator of hyperinflation of the lungs and is usually due to emphysema. The thickness of the space between the ascending aorta and the posterior margin of the sternum (3 cm inferior to the sternomanubrial joint) and is normally no more than 2.5 cm 1 altho...
Article

Infertility in the exam

It is important to have a systematic way of approaching a case with subfertility in the exam.  Ultrasound is the initial examination of choice. Always say that you would further assess the uterus with 3D ultrasound. You may also say that in my department we would perform a sonohysterogram or HS...
Article

Intercaudate distance to inner table width ratio

Intercaudate distance to inner table width ratio (CC/IT) is used in assessing patients with neurodegenerative diseases that affect the caudate nuclei. It is best known for assessing individuals with suspected Huntington disease but is in no way specific for the diagnosis, also seen in other less...
Article

Intercristal line

The intercristal line (also known as Jacoby’s Line or Tuffier’s Line) is a horizontal line drawn across the highest points of both the iliac crests in an anteroposterior (AP) lumbar radiograph 1,2. The intercristal line most often intersects the body of L4 or its inferior endplate in men and th...
Article

Intermetatarsal angle

An increased intermetatarsal angle is associated with hallux valgus,  metatarsus adductus and metatarsus primus varus deformities. Measurement The intermetatarsal angle is measured between the 1st and 2nd metatarsal shafts on an axial view of the foot. Interpretation normal: ≤9° increased: ...
Article

Interpeduncular angle

The interpeduncular angle is defined as the angle formed by the posterior half of the cerebral peduncles on axial images. The interpeduncular angle has been proposed as a sensitive and specific measure of intracranial hypotension (reduced) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) (increased)1,2....
Article

Interscalene brachial plexus block

An interscalene brachial plexus block is indicated for procedures involving the shoulder and upper arm. History Ultrasound-guided brachial plexus nerve blocks entered the literature in 1989, when Ting et al. detailed their success with axillary nerve blocks in 10 patients 3. Indications redu...
Article

Interseptal distance

The interseptal distance (ISD) is a measurement used to assess septal area atrophy as a marker for neurodegenerative conditions in patients with memory problems 1. It is proposed that atrophy of the septal nuclei can commonly be seen in conditions associated with hippocampal atrophy, particular...
Article

Intervertebral disc disease nomenclature

Intervertebral disc disease nomenclature has changed over the years, and a familiarity with current definitions is essential if clear communication is to be achieved via radiology reports or referrals, especially as lumbar disc disease is a common problem and a source of a great deal of imaging....
Article

Interzygomatic line

The interzygomatic line is a commonly used reference standard for the evaluation of proptosis due to various etiologies on CT/MRI scans. Technique A horizontal line should be drawn between the most anterior parts of the zygomatic bones in the axial plane. The normal distance of the interzygom...
Article

Intracranial nonneoplastic cysts

Intracranial nonneoplastic cysts are common findings in magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomographic (CT) brain scans. Location-based diagnostic approach A location-based approach is useful in establishing an appropriate diagnosis; some locations are virtually pathognomonic for certain les...
Article

Intradural spinal mass lesions (an approach)

Intradural spinal mass lesions are relatively uncommon, compared to intracranial or extradural masses, and can be challenging to diagnose. Additionally, the need for a pre-operative/non-operative diagnosis is in many ways greater as biopsy of lesions within the cord has the potential of devastat...
Article

Intraventricular masses (an approach)

The ventricular system of the brain plays host to a variety of unique tumors, as well as tumors that are more frequently seen elsewhere (e.g. meningiomas). Besides, some intra-axial (parenchymal) masses can be mostly exophytic and thus appear mostly intraventricular. A systematic approach taking...
Article

Iodinated contrast media adverse reactions

Iodinated contrast media adverse reactions, popularly but erroneously referred to as contrast allergies (see Terminology below), are an uncommon group of symptoms and signs, with different degrees of severity, that may occur after the administration of these drugs.  Anaphylactic-type reactions ...
Article

IOTA ultrasound rules for ovarian masses

The International Ovarian Tumor Analysis (IOTA) group ultrasound rules for ovarian masses are a simple set of ultrasound findings that classify ovarian masses into benign, malignant or inconclusive masses. These rules apply to masses that are not a classical ovarian mass (e.g. corpus luteum, end...
Article

Isikoff's View

The Isikoff's view is a sonographic view which demonstrates the origins of the right and left renal arteries. It is taken in the longitudinal plane with the patient in the left lateral decubitus position 1.
Article

Isolated free fluid in trauma

Isolated free fluid in trauma may or may not represent a significant injury, and this creates a diagnostic dilemma in determining appropriate treatment for these patients.  Epidemiology The presence of isolated free fluid in trauma occurs in 3-5% of blunt trauma patients 1-4. Pathology The c...
Article

Isomerism

Isomerism is a term which in general means 'mirror-image' and refers to finding normally-asymmetric bilateral structures to be similar. It is used in the context of heterotaxy and is of two types: left isomerism right isomerism Left isomerism Mirror image of the structures on the left side o...
Article

Joint effusion

A joint effusion is defined as an increased amount of fluid within the synovial compartment of a joint. There is normally only a small amount of physiological intra-articular fluid. Abnormal fluid accumulation can result from inflammation, infection (i.e. pus) or trauma and may be an exudate, t...
Article

Knee injection (disambiguation)

Knee injection is a general term and can be made in reference, especially by patients, to multiple procedures which include: common peroneal (fibular) nerve injection knee joint injection MRI arthrogram CT arthrogram anesthetic arthrogram patella tendon microtenotomy quadriceps tendon mic...
Article

Knee joint injection (technique)

Knee joint injections under image guidance ensure precise delivery of an injectate into the knee joint. Both fluoroscopy, ultrasound and CT can be used to guide and administer MRI and CT arthrogram injectate, or a steroid containing arthrogram injectate.   Indications MRI: retear of repaired m...
Article

Knee MRI (an approach)

Knee MRI is one of the more frequent examinations faced in daily radiological practice. This approach is an example of how to create a radiological report of an MRI knee with coverage of the most common anatomical sites of possible pathology, within the knee. Systematic review A systematic rev...
Article

Knee radiograph (an approach)

Systematic review Effusion? Check for an effusion on the lateral: peripatellar fat pads should sit next to each other anterior suprapatellar fat pad prefemoral fat pad soft tissue density between them indicates an effusion if simple effusion (hemarthrosis), think severe ligamentous, menis...
Article

Knee radiograph (checklist)

The knee radiograph checklist is just one of the many pathology checklists that can be used when reporting to ensure that you always actively exclude pathology that is commonly missed; this is particularly helpful in the examination setting, e.g. the FRCR 2B rapid-reporting. Radiograph Knee ra...
Article

Lateral trochlear inclination (LTI)

Lateral trochlear inclination (LTI) is the inclination angle between the femoral trochlea and a posterior condylar tangential line 1. Usage Lateral trochlear inclination (LTI) is used in the assessment of trochlear dysplasia, a dysplastic deformity of the distal femur, which is known risk fact...
Article

Left atrial enlargement

Left atrial enlargement (LAE) may result from many conditions, either congenital or acquired. It has some characteristic findings on a frontal chest radiograph. CT or MRI may also be used for diagnosis. Clinical presentation An enlarged left atrium can have many clinical implications, such as:...
Article

Left upper lobe collapse in the exam

Getting a film with left upper lobe collapse in the exam is one of the many exam set-pieces that can be prepared for. Description This frontal chest radiograph shows a hazy (or veil-like*) opacification of the left hemithorax that is associated with superior displacement left hilum and horizon...
Article

Left ventricular ejection fraction (echocardiography)

Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is a surrogate for left ventricular global systolic function, defined as the left ventricular stroke volume divided by the end-diastolic volume. Terminology Point-of-care echocardiography protocols typically use a semi-quantitative approach in defining...
Article

Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in echocardiography (differential)

Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction describes a state in which the egress of blood from the left ventricle to the systemic circulation is impeded as it traverses the anatomic LVOT to the aortic arch. Echocardiography, particularly with the use of spectral Doppler, may be used to de...
Article

Lines and tubes (radiograph)

Lines and tubes are important components in chest radiographic evaluation. Nasogastric tube (NGT) See: nasogastric tube positioning.  Correct position NG tube tip ≥10 cm distal to the gastro-esophageal junction i.e. below the left hemidiaphragm Complications insertion into trachea or bron...
Article

Lipoma vs well-differentiated liposarcoma

There a number of features that can help distinguish between lipoma and well-differentiated liposarcoma. This article relates to superficial well-differentiated liposarcomas that typically occur in the extremities, also known as atypical lipomatous tumors, and not retroperitoneal liposarcoma. E...
Article

Liver lesions (pediatric)

Pediatric liver lesions are a heterogeneous group that includes infiltrative lesions and those that demonstrate mass-effect. Moreover, they may be solitary or multiple, benign or malignant: benign liver tumors malignant liver tumors Epidemiology There are differing frequencies of both benign...
Article

Lobar collapse (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Lobar collapse is relatively common and occurs following obstruction of a bronchus. Gas is resorbed from the lung parenchyma distal to the obstruction resulting in the collapse of the lung, with volume reduction and negativ...
Article

Lobectomy (lung)

A lobectomy (plural: lobectomies) is the complete resection of one lobe of the lung and is the commonest lung surgery performed for bronchogenic carcinoma. Technique A posterolateral thoracotomy is the commonest approach for the resection of lung malignancies. For other surgical approaches for...
Article

Localization of parotid lesions

The parotid gland consists of a superficial and deep lobe. Determining the location and extent of the lesions affecting the gland is an essential aspect of imaging and vital information which needs to be conveyed to the surgeon. Method of evaluation The following lines are proposed for differe...
Article

Long head of biceps brachii tendon sheath injection (technique)

Long head of biceps brachii (LHB) tendon sheath injections under ultrasound-guidance ensures accurate delivery of injectate, which is important as these injections are often performed for diagnostic purposes.    Indications pain diagnostic injection alternative access to the glenohumeral joi...
Article

Lower zone

The lower zone is one of the four chest radiograph zones.  Radiographic features Plain radiograph on frontal chest radiographs, extends inferiorly from the inferior aspect of the hilum to the hemidiaphragm
Article

Low grade central osteosarcoma

Low grade central osteosarcoma is an uncommon subtype of osteosarcoma accounting less than 1% of all osteosarcomas. Epidemiology Low grade osteosarcoma affects individuals of higher age group as compare to the other subtypes of osteosarcoma. The usual age of presentation is 19 to 54 years with...
Article

Lumbar spine radiograph (checklist)

The lumbar spine checklist is just one of the many pathology checklists that can be used when reporting to ensure that you always actively exclude pathology that is commonly missed; this is particularly helpful in the examination setting, e.g. the FRCR 2B rapid-reporting. Radiograph The lumbar...
Article

Lung cancer (staging - IASLC 8th edition)

The IASLC (International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer) 8th edition lung cancer staging system was introduced in 2016 and supersedes the IASLC 7th edition.  Standard-of-care lung cancer staging ideally should be performed in a multidisciplinary meeting using the information provided ...
Article

Lymph node imaging

Lymph node imaging is a useful technique, aiding the clinician in determining whether nodes are benign or malignant. Multiple modalities are used for the assessment and characterization of lymph nodes, each with its advantages and drawbacks. Modalities Ultrasound size  number shape contour...
Article

Magnetic resonance neurography

Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) is a relatively new non-invasive imaging technique for dedicated assessment of peripheral nerves. It is used to assess peripheral nerve entrapments and impingements as well as localization and grading of nerve injuries and lesions. Dedicated high-resolution...
Article

Malignant ovarian lesions (sonographic features)

Malignant ovarian lesions can have typical sonographic features, and thus ultrasound is the imaging of choice for initial evaluation of suspected ovarian neoplasm. Radiographic features The features of malignant ovarian neoplasm on ultrasonography include: solid tumor mass >10 cm with locula...
Article

Mammography

Mammography is a dedicated radiographic technique for imaging the breast. Types of mammography In general terms, there are two types of mammography: screening and diagnostic. Mammography differs significantly in many respects from the rest of diagnostic imaging. Screening mammography  In ge...
Article

Management of Incidental Adrenal Masses: American College of Radiology white paper

The Management of Incidental Adrenal Masses revised in 2017 by the Adrenal Subcommittee of the Incidental Findings Committee of the American College of Radiology is an algorithm for the management of patients who are: adults (i.e. 18-year-old or over) asymptomatic for adrenal pathology referr...
Article

Mass of the inguinal region (differential)

The differential diagnosis of a mass in the inguinal region includes: inguinal hernia femoral hernia hydrocele of the canal of Nuck spermatic cord hydrocele lymphadenopathy or necrotic lymph node aneurysm or pseudoaneurysm of the femoral artery iliopectineal bursa abscess hematoma lymp...
Article

McGrigor-Campbell lines

McGrigor-Campbell lines are imaginary lines traced across the face on an occipitomental (Waters) view skull radiograph to assess for fractures of the middle third (especially) of the face3: first line is traced from one zygomaticofrontal suture to another, across the superior edge of the orbits...
Article

McMurray test

The McMurray test is used to assess the presence of meniscal tears within the knee. Background Clinical tests used for the detection of meniscal tears provide varying levels of diagnostic parameters including sensitivity and specificity. MRI is considered the most accurate diagnostic tool for ...
Article

Medial clear space of the ankle

The medial clear space (MCS) is a radiographic measure and defined as the space between the lateral edge of the medial malleolus and the medial side of the talus 1-3. Usage It is used in the prediction of deltoid ligament injury 1 and in conjunction with the tibiofibular clear space (TFCS) the...
Article

Medial condyle trochlear offset

Medial condyle trochlear offset is a measurement to assess the height of the medial trochlear facet with respect to the trochlear groove 1. Usage Medial condyle trochlear offset has been described for the assessment of trochlear dysplasia in skeletally immature patients  1. It measures and/or ...
Article

Medial temporal lobe atrophy score

The medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) score, also known as Scheltens' scale, is useful in distinguishing patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease from those without impairment 2 is helpful in the assessment of patients with possible dementia (see neurodegenerative MRI brain...
Article

Medical devices

Medical devices are commonly seen on all imaging modalities of all body parts. When possible medical devices may be completely removed or at least moved out of the field of view to reduce image artifacts. Oftentimes it is impossible to remove devices, and the reporter must make allowances for th...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.