Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

393 results found
Article

Head ultrasound

Head ultrasound (HUS), also called cranial ultrasound (CUS), is obtained for the diagnosis and follow-up of premature and sick neonates. Advantages Head ultrasound has the advantages of: accessibility mobility, i.e. bedside scanning at the NICU and neonatal ward requiring no sedation enabl...
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Hepatobiliary contrast agents and LI-RADS

LI-RADS (Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System) is both a set of standardized terminology and a classification system for imaging findings in liver lesions. The LI-RADS score for a liver lesion is an indication of its relative risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The classification system ...
Article

Hickam's dictum

Hickam's dictum is usually stated as "patients can have as many diseases as they damn (or darn) well please". This aphorism has been attributed to John Hickam (1914-1970) an American physician, who was Chair of the Department of Medicine at the University of Indiana 1.  The importance of this d...
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Hindfoot equinus

Hindfoot equinus describes abnormal plantarflexion (calcaneotibial angle >90°)  of the foot that occurs in the hindfoot. It occurs in congenital talipes equinovarus and congenital vertical talus.
Article

HRCT chest

High-resolution CT (HRCT) of the chest, also referred to as HRCT chest or HRCT of the lungs, refers to a CT technique in which thin-slice chest images are obtained and post-processed in a high-spatial-frequency reconstruction algorithm. This technique obtains images with exquisite lung detail, w...
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HRCT chest: expiration

Expiratory high-resolution CT (HRCT) imaging corresponds to an additional CT acquisition performed as part of the HRCT chest protocol. It represents a scan performed with the patient on supine and images obtained at the end-expiration.  It is a useful method for detecting small airways obstruct...
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Hyperechoic liver lesions

A hyperechoic liver lesion on ultrasound can arise from a number of entities, both benign and malignant. A benign hepatic hemangioma is the most common entity encountered, but in patients with atypical findings or risk for malignancy, other entities must be considered. Benign hepatic hemangiom...
Article

Hysterosalpingogram

Hysterosalpingogram (HSG) is a fluoroscopic examination of the uterus and the Fallopian tubes, most commonly used in the investigation of infertility or recurrent spontaneous abortions. Indications Infertility to assess uterine morphology and tubal patency. Contraindications pregnancy activ...
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Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: HRCT chest approach

The approach to HRCT chest in patients with suspected idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) is with the aim to: make sure an appropriate study requested i.e. HRCT chest with optimal individually adjusted protocol and ensure adequacy of the HRCT chest quality (see imaging protocol below) meti...
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Imaging in liver transplantation

Imaging in liver transplantation is aimed to evaluate donor and recipient for successful transplantation and its outcome. Pre-transplant evaluation Donor volume of liver parenchymal disease (diffuse or focal) vascular anatomy arterial variations venous variations biliary anatomy Recipie...
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Imaging of gunshot injuries

Gunshot injuries often require imaging assessment, and this evaluation has both clinical relevance (assessment of organ damage, surgical planning, and prognostication), and often also forensic implications. Epidemiology Incidence of gunshot injuries to the head is increasing in some countries,...
Article

Incidental lung nodules

Incidental lung nodules are encountered commonly in normal clinical practice on CT. The risk of developing cancer in very small nodules (<5 mm) is very low. However, clear-cut recommendations are still not in place with high variation in practice amongst reporting radiologists 1. As a result, it...
Article

Incidental thyroid nodules

Incidental thyroid nodules, sometimes called thyroid incidentalomas, are discrete lesions in the thyroid gland found on cross-sectional imaging performed for indications other than thyroid evaluation. They are common but occasionally represent thyroid cancer 1. This article discusses the epidemi...
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Increased retrosternal airspace

Increased retrosternal airspace is an indicator of hyperinflation of the lungs and is usually due to emphysema. The thickness of the space between the ascending aorta and the posterior margin of the sternum (3 cm inferior to the sternomanubrial joint) and is normally no more than 2.5 cm 1 altho...
Article

Infertility in the exam

It is important to have a systematic way of approaching a case with subfertility in the exam.  Ultrasound is the initial examination of choice. Always say that you would further assess the uterus with 3D ultrasound. You may also say that in my department we would perform a sonohysterogram or HS...
Article

Intercaudate distance to inner table width ratio

Intercaudate distance to inner table width ratio (CC/IT) is used in assessing patients with neurodegenerative diseases that affect the caudate nuclei. It is best known for assessing individuals with suspected Huntington disease but is in no way specific for the diagnosis, also seen in other less...
Article

Intermetatarsal angle

The intermetatarsal (IM) angle refers to the angle measured between the 1st and 2nd metatarsal shaft on an axial view of the foot. In normal situations it is considered to be under 9°. The angle can increase with hallux valgus and metatarsus adductus deformities.
Article

Interscalene brachial plexus block

An interscalene brachial plexus block is indicated for procedures involving the shoulder and upper arm. History Ultrasound-guided brachial plexus nerve blocks entered the literature in 1989, when Ting et al. detailed their success with axillary nerve blocks in 10 patients 3. Indications redu...
Article

Interseptal distance

The interseptal distance (ISD) is a measurement used to assess septal area atrophy as a marker for neurodegenerative conditions in patients with memory problems 1. It is proposed that atrophy of the septal nuclei can commonly be seen in conditions associated with hippocampal atrophy, particular...
Article

Intervertebral disc disease nomenclature

Intervertebral disc disease nomenclature has changed over the years, and a familiarity with current definitions is essential if clear communication is to be achieved via radiology reports or referrals, especially as lumbar disc disease is a common problem and a source of a great deal of imaging....
Article

Interzygomatic line

The interzygomatic line is a commonly used reference standard for the evaluation of proptosis due to various etiologies on CT/MRI scans. Technique A horizontal line should be drawn between the most anterior parts of the zygomatic bones in the axial plane. The normal distance of the interzygom...
Article

Intracranial nonneoplastic cysts

Intracranial nonneoplastic cysts are common findings in magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomographic (CT) brain scans. Location-based diagnostic approach A location-based approach is useful in establishing an appropriate diagnosis; some locations are virtually pathognomonic for certain les...
Article

Intradural spinal mass lesions (an approach)

Intradural spinal mass lesions are relatively uncommon, compared to intracranial or extradural masses, and can be challenging to diagnose. Additionally, the need for a pre-operative/non-operative diagnosis is in many ways greater as biopsy of lesions within the cord has the potential of devastat...
Article

Intraventricular masses (an approach)

The ventricular system of the brain plays host to a variety of unique tumors, as well as tumors that are more frequently seen elsewhere (e.g. meningiomas). Besides, some intra-axial (parenchymal) masses can be mostly exophytic and thus appear mostly intraventricular. A systematic approach taking...
Article

Iodinated contrast media adverse reactions

Iodinated contrast media adverse reactions, popularly but erroneously referred to as contrast allergies (see Terminology below), are an uncommon group of symptoms and signs, with different degrees of severity, that may occur after the administration of these drugs.  Anaphylactic-type reactions ...
Article

IOTA ultrasound rules for ovarian masses

The International Ovarian Tumor Analysis (IOTA) group ultrasound rules for ovarian masses are a simple set of ultrasound findings that classify ovarian masses into benign, malignant or inconclusive masses. These rules apply to masses that are not a classical ovarian mass (e.g. corpus luteum, end...
Article

Isikoff's View

The Isikoff's view is a sonographic view which demonstrates the origins of the right and left renal arteries. It is taken in the longitudinal plane with the patient in the left lateral decubitus position 1.
Article

Isolated free fluid in trauma

Isolated free fluid in trauma may or may not represent a significant injury, and this creates a diagnostic dilemma in determining appropriate treatment for these patients.  Epidemiology The presence of isolated free fluid in trauma occurs in 3-5% of blunt trauma patients 1-4. Pathology The c...
Article

Isomerism

Isomerism is a term which in general means 'mirror-image'. It is used in the context of heterotaxy and is of two types: left isomerism right isomerism Left isomerism Mirror image of the structures on the left side of the chest along the left-right axis of the body, i.e. patients with isomeri...
Article

Joint effusion

A joint effusion is defined as an increased amount of fluid within the synovial compartment of a joint. There is normally only a small amount of physiological intra-articular fluid. Abnormal fluid accumulation can result from inflammation, infection (i.e. pus) or trauma and may be an exudate, t...
Article

Knee radiograph (an approach)

Systematic review Effusion? Check for an effusion on the lateral: peripatellar fat pads should sit next to each other anterior suprapatellar fat pad prefemoral fat pad soft tissue density between them indicates an effusion if simple effusion (hemarthrosis), think severe ligamentous, menis...
Article

Lanthanum therapy

Lanthanum therapy is used to treat hyperphosphatemia in end-stage renal disease 1. It is taken as oral tablets (usually in the chemical form Lanthanum carbonate) which dissociate in the acidic environment of the stomach. The released trivalent Lanthanum cation has a high affinity for dietary pho...
Article

Left atrial enlargement

Left atrial enlargement (LAE) may result from many conditions, either congenital or acquired. It has some characteristic findings on a frontal chest radiograph. CT or MRI may also be used for diagnosis. Clinical presentation An enlarged left atrium can have many clinical implications, such as:...
Article

Left upper lobe collapse in the exam

Getting a film with left upper lobe collapse in the exam is one of the many exam set-pieces that can be prepared for. Description This frontal chest radiograph shows a hazy (or veil-like*) opacification of the left hemithorax that is associated with superior displacement left hilum and horizon...
Article

Left ventricular ejection fraction (echocardiography)

Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is a surrogate for left ventricular global systolic function, defined as the left ventricular stroke volume divided by the end-diastolic volume. Terminology Point-of-care echocardiography protocols typically use a semi-quantitative approach in defining...
Article

Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in echocardiography (differential)

Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction describes a state in which the egress of blood from the left ventricle to the systemic circulation is impeded as it traverses the anatomic LVOT to the aortic arch. Echocardiography, particularly with the use of spectral Doppler, may be used to de...
Article

Lines and tubes (chest radiograph)

Lines and tubes are important components in chest radiographic evaluation. Nasogastric (NG) tube See: nasogastric tube positioning.  Correct position NG tube tip ≥10 cm distal to the gastro-esophageal junction i.e. below the left hemidiaphragm Complications insertion into trachea or bronc...
Article

Lobar collapse (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Lobar collapse is relatively common and occurs following obstruction of a bronchus. Gas is resorbed from the lung parenchyma distal to the obstruction resulting in the collapse of the lung, with volume reduction and negativ...
Article

Lobectomy (lung)

A lobectomy (plural: lobectomies) is the complete resection of one lobe of the lung and is the commonest lung surgery performed for bronchogenic carcinoma. Technique A posterolateral thoracotomy is the commonest approach for the resection of lung malignancies. For other surgical approaches for...
Article

Localization of parotid lesions

The parotid gland consists of a superficial and deep lobe. Determining the location and extent of the lesions affecting the gland is an essential aspect of imaging and vital information which needs to be conveyed to the surgeon. Method of evaluation The following lines are proposed for differe...
Article

Lower zone

The lower zone is one of the four chest radiograph zones.  Radiographic features Plain radiograph on frontal chest radiographs, extends inferiorly from the inferior aspect of the hilum to the hemidiaphragm
Article

Low grade central osteosarcoma

Low grade central osteosarcoma is an uncommon subtype of osteosarcoma accounting less than 1% of all osteosarcomas. Epidemiology Low grade osteosarcoma affects individuals of higher age group as compare to the other subtypes of osteosarcoma. The usual age of presentation is 19 to 54 years with...
Article

Lung cancer (staging - IASLC 8th edition)

The IASLC (International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer) 8th edition lung cancer staging system was introduced in 2016 and supersedes the IASLC 7th edition.  Standard-of-care lung cancer staging ideally should be performed in a multidisciplinary meeting using the information provided ...
Article

Lymph node imaging

Lymph node imaging is a useful technique, aiding the clinician in determining whether nodes are benign or malignant. Multiple modalities are used for the assessment and characterization of lymph nodes, each with its advantages and drawbacks. Modalities Ultrasound size  number shape contour...
Article

Magnetic resonance neurography

Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) is a relatively new non-invasive imaging technique for dedicated assessment of peripheral nerves. It is used to assess peripheral nerve entrapments and impingements as well as localization and grading of nerve injuries and lesions. Dedicated high-resolution...
Article

Malignant ovarian lesions (sonographic features)

Malignant ovarian lesions can have typical sonographic features, and thus ultrasound is the imaging of choice for initial evaluation of suspected ovarian neoplasm. Radiographic features The features of malignant ovarian neoplasm on ultrasonography include: solid tumor mass >10 cm with locula...
Article

Mammography

Mammography is a dedicated radiographic technique for imaging the breast. Types of mammography In general terms, there are two types of mammography: screening and diagnostic. Mammography differs significantly in many respects from the rest of diagnostic imaging. Screening mammography  In ge...
Article

Management of Incidental Adrenal Masses: American College of Radiology white paper

The Management of Incidental Adrenal Masses revised in 2017 by the Adrenal Subcommittee of the Incidental Findings Committee of the American College of Radiology is an algorithm for the management of patients who are: adults (i.e. 18-year-old or over) asymptomatic for adrenal pathology referr...
Article

Mass of the inguinal region (differential)

The differential diagnosis of a mass in the inguinal region includes: inguinal hernia femoral hernia hydrocele of the canal of Nuck lymphadenopathy or necrotic lymph node aneurysm or pseudoaneurysm of the femoral artery iliopectineal bursa abscess hematoma lymphangioma epidermal inclus...
Article

McGill Thyroid Nodule Score (MTNS)

The McGill Thyroid Nodule Score (MTNS) is a scoring system developed to estimate the risk of malignancy of thyroid nodules.1 Scoring system The MTNS is based on 22 parameters: eight clinical or laboratory parameters gender (male): 1 point age (>45 years old): 1 point palpable nodule (prese...
Article

McGrigor-Campbell lines

McGrigor-Campbell lines are imaginary lines traced across the face on an occipitomental (Waters) view skull radiograph to assess for fractures of the middle third (especially) of the face3: first line is traced from one zygomaticofrontal suture to another, across the superior edge of the orbits...
Article

McMurray test

The McMurray test is used to assess the presence of meniscal tears within the knee. Background Clinical tests used for the detection of meniscal tears provide varying levels of diagnostic parameters including sensitivity and specificity. MRI is considered the most accurate diagnostic tool for ...
Article

Medial temporal lobe atrophy score

The medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) score is useful in distinguishing patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease from those without impairment 2 is helpful in the assessment of patients with possible dementia (see neurodegenerative MRI brain - an approach). Classification ...
Article

Midfoot equinus

Midfoot equinus is an abnormality in foot alignment where there is abnormal plantarflexion of the foot in the midfoot. Related pathology Midfoot equinus occurs as a component of congenital talipes equinovarus.
Article

Mid zone

The mid (or middle) zone is one of the four chest radiograph zones.  Radiographic appearance Plain radiograph on frontal chest radiographs, extends between the superior and inferior aspects of the hilum
Article

M-line of Cremin

M-line of Cremin is an imaginary line that can be used to determine the level at which the blind pouch ends in anal atresia, determining whether the anal atresia is a high or a low type. The line is drawn perpendicular to the long axis of the ischium on the lateral view and passes through the j...
Article

Monoarticular arthropathy

Monoarticular arthropathy can result from a number of causes: infectious arthritis gout HADD (hydroxyapatite deposition disease) traumatic arthritis secondary osteoarthritis avascular necrosis PVNS synovial osteochondromatosis osteochondritis dissecans
Article

MR enterography

MR enterography is a non-invasive technique for diagnosis of small bowel disorders. Indications MR enterography is most commonly used to evaluate patients with Crohn disease where it is used for assessment of the primary disease and any complications. Other indications include celiac disease, ...
Article

MRI of the brachial plexus

MRI of the brachial plexus is used to provide a causal diagnosis for brachial plexopathies. It provides clear structural analysis of the brachial plexus, its intraneural integrity, as well as surrounding structures 1,3. Related pathology brachial plexus injuries grading of brachial plexus inj...
Article

MRI targeted prostate biopsy

MRI targeted prostate biopsy refers to an imaging targeted technique rather than the traditional systematic approach of a prostate biopsy after respective imaging with multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) of the prostate. As a consequence of the recent advances of multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) of the pros...
Article

Mulder sign

Mulder sign is a clinical test used to examine causes of metatarsalgia associated with Morton neuroma. It has high specificity (100%) but relatively low sensitivity (62%) 2. Technique With one hand, clasp the metatarsal heads between the thumb and fingers or thenar eminence and fingers. Place ...
Article

Multiphase CT angiography in acute ischemic stroke

Multiphase CT angiography is an evolving imaging technique in acute ischemic stroke. The technique aims to quickly and reliably identify brain which is potentially salvageable with intervention. Brain tissue viability depends on many factors, with this technique assessing collateral leptomeninge...
Article

Myocardial mapping

Myocardial mapping or parametric mapping of the heart is one of various magnetic resonance imaging techniques, which has evolved and been increasingly used in the last decade for non-invasive tissue characterization of the myocardium 1-5. Unlike normal T1-, T2- or T2*- images, parametric mapping...
Article

Naming of organisms

Occasionally, we will refer to lifeforms in an article or case, and we adhere to standard scientific convention when it comes to naming organisms. as set down by the International Commision on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) 1. As per the standard binomial system, the genus and species of the org...
Article

Nasogastric tube positioning

Assessment of nasogastric (NG) tube positioning is a key competency of all doctors as unidentified malpositioning may have dire consequences, including death. Evaluation of NGT Plain radiograph The ideal position should be in the subdiaphragmatic position in the stomach - identified on a plai...
Article

Nasogastric tube position on chest x-ray (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists   Nasogastric (NG) tube position on chest x-ray should be assessed following initial placement and on subsequent radiographs. Reference article This is a summary article; we have a more in-depth reference article NGT. S...
Article

Neonatal chest radiograph in the exam setting

The neonatal chest radiograph in the exam setting may strike fear into the heart of many radiology registrars, but it need not! There are only a limited number of diagnoses that will be presented on such films and they are often highlighted by the history. Gestation First of all, have a look ...
Article

Neonatal pneumothorax

Neonatal pneumothorax describes pneumothoraces occurring in neonates. It is a life-threatening condition, associated with high morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis is a challenge especially when the amount of air is small and may accumulate along the anterior or medial pleural space. Epidemio...
Article

Neurodegenerative MRI brain (an approach)

Imaging of the brain in patients with suspected neurodegenerative conditions is common and challenging, as in patients with subtle and equivocal signs and symptoms, the imaging findings are also often subtle and equivocal. In many instances, by the time imaging findings are clear cut, then the p...
Article

NEXUS criteria

NEXUS (National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study) is a set of validated criteria used to decide which trauma patients do not require cervical spine imaging. Trauma patients who do not require cervical spine imaging require all of the following: alert and stable no focal neurologic de...
Article

Nipple markers

Nipple markers can be a useful technique in the evaluation of small radiodensities overlying the expected position of the nipple on a chest radiograph. Not uncommonly a small round opacity projects over the lower thorax on a chest radiograph (see: solitary pulmonary nodule). Often, especially i...
Article

Normal mesenteric lymph nodes

In the premultidetector CT era, mesenteric lymph nodes (often shortened to mesenteric nodes) were only really appreciated when enlarged. Following the advent of routine volume acquisition CT (and especially coronal reformats) lymph nodes in the mesentery are commonly seen in normal individuals, ...
Article

Normal pulmonary venous Doppler

Normal pulmonary venous blood flow in the pulmonary veins may be investigated during echocardiography with spectral Doppler analysis. Perturbations in the normal pulmonary venous waveform may indicate the presence of diastolic dysfunction and elevated filling pressures in the left atrium and ven...
Article

Normal radiographic measurements of the shoulder

Normal radiographic measurements of the shoulder are important in evaluation of the osseous relationships in plain film radiography. Normal measurements do not rule out pathology, and must be considered in the context of other findings and the clinical presentation. AC joint space: 2-4 mm  inc...
Article

Occam's razor

Occam's razor (also known as lex parsimoniae), an often cited principle of parsimony, economy, or succinctness used in problem-solving. It has also been expressed as the KISS principle or "Keep it simple stupid!". It states that among competing hypotheses, the one with the fewest assumptions sh...
Article

Esophageal intubation

Esophageal intubation refers to the incorrect placement of an endotracheal tube in the esophagus. Within minutes its consequences can be catastrophic with the seriousness of its outcome depending largely on the timeliness of its diagnosis. Epidemiology Accidental esophageal intubation can happ...
Article

On-track and off-track shoulder lesions

Bipolar shoulder lesions of anterior glenohumeral dislocations (i.e. combined bony Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions) put patients at increased risk of Hill-Sachs engagement or recurrent instability. Determining if the Hill-Sachs lesions are on-track or off-track can help guide management, although...
Article

Optic nerve sheath diameter

Optic nerve sheath diameter has significance in the assessment of papilledema in cases of elevated intracranial pressure. Pathology The optic nerve sheath demonstrates changes in diameter with CSF pressure changes as there is a layer of subarachnoid space between the nerve and its sheath, whic...
Article

Osteolytic lesions with septations and trabeculations (differential)

Differential diagnosis of lytic bone lesions with septations and trabeculations include 1: benign lesions unicameral bone cyst aneurysmal bone cyst giant cell tumor non-ossifying fibroma intraosseous lipoma fibrous dysplasia Brown tumor ameloblastoma adamantinoma haemophilic pseudotum...
Article

Ottawa ankle rules

The Ottawa ankle rules are a clinical decision-making strategy for determining which patients require radiographic imaging for ankle and midfoot injuries. Proper application has high (97.5%) sensitivity and reduces the need for radiographs by ~35% 1,2,4.  There are two components, assessing for...
Article

Ottawa knee rules

The Ottawa knee rules are a clinical decision-making strategy for determining which patients require radiographic imaging for knee pain. A patient with knee pain qualifies for knee radiographs if any of the following apply: 55 years or older point tenderness at the fibular head isolated poin...
Article

Pediatric elbow radiograph (an approach)

Pediatric elbow radiographs are commonly encountered in the emergency department and, when approached in a systematic fashion, are not as difficult to interpret as most people think! Systematic review Ossification Check that the ossification centers are present and in the correct position. Th...
Article

Pediatric urinary tract infection (NICE guideline)

The British National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) published the “Urinary tract infection in under 16s: diagnosis and management” in 2007 as a guideline for pediatric urinary tract infection (UTI) management, including imaging, prophylaxis and follow-up 1.  This article intend...
Article

Pain rating scales

There are a number of pain rating scales used by clinicians and researchers to gauge the severity of patients' pain. Commonly used methods: pain numeric rating scale (NRS/NPRS) visual analog scale (VAS) verbal rating scale (VRS) faces pain scale-revised (FPS-R) Pain numeric rating scale Th...
Article

Pancreatic ultrasound

Pancreatic ultrasound can be used to assess for pancreatic malignancy, pancreatitis and its complications, as well as for other pancreatic pathology. Preparation Fast the patient to reduce interference from overlying bowel gas, which may otherwise make visualization difficult. Scanning techni...
Article

Paragonimiasis

Paragonimiasis is a disease caused by several species of the trematode genus Paragonimus.  More than 50 different species of Paragonimus have been described in Asia, Africa, and the Americas and of those nine species infecting humans. The most important species is Paragonimus Westermani, which ...
Article

Pathognomonic

The term pathognomonic in radiology, as well as clinical medicine in general, refers to a finding or a sign that is only found in a single specific condition or specific group of conditions, i.e. the finding has 100% specificity. Thus by implication, a pathognomonic finding cannot and does not h...
Article

Pathology checklists

Pathology checklists are really helpful when reporting a radiograph, ultrasound or cross-sectional examination. It is a key way to ensure that you fully review a film and don't fall foul of satisfaction of search. Plain film radiographs craniofacial skull radiograph checklist facial bones ra...
Article

Patterns of sinonasal obstruction

Recognizing patterns of sinonasal obstruction is useful to help localize the area of pathology and narrow the differential diagnosis.  Radiographic features Babbel et al described five pattern of sinonasal obstruction 1, which are readily apparent on CT: Infundibular pattern opacification of...
Article

PECARN traumatic brain injury algorithm

The PECARN (Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network) traumatic brain injury algorithm is a clinical decision rule that aims to identify children at very low risk of clinically important traumatic brain injury (ci-TBI) 1. This validated pediatric algorithm predicts likelihood of the abo...
Article

Pelvic pain in the exam

It is important to have a systematic way of approaching a case with pelvic pain in the exam.  Most examinations are performed using ultrasound. Always say that you would further assess the uterus with 3D ultrasound. You may also say that in my department we would perform a sonohysterogram. Only...
Article

Pelvic radiograph (an approach)

Systematic review Three rings trace the main pelvic ring and two obturator foramina if a ring is disrupted, think fracture... then look for a second one Joint spaces the sacroiliac joints should be symmetrical, joint space range 2-4 mm the symphysis pubis joint space should be ≤5 mm if ei...
Article

Pelvic ultrasound

Pelvic ultrasound is usually the initial modality for imaging gynecologic pathology, including acute pelvic pain and chronic pelvic pain. The exam normally involves two components: a transabdominal (TA) evaluation and a transvaginal (TV) / endovaginal (EV) evaluation. Normal ultrasound anatomy ...

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