Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) refers to the haematogenous spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Extrapulmonary tubercuosis can occur as a primary form of the disease, i.e. direct infection of an extrapulmonary organ without the presence of primary pulmonary tuberculosis or it can occur as a result of the spread of primary pulmonary tuberculosis.
It appears classically as tuberculous granulomata (tuberculomas) within the affected organs. However, certain forms of the disease exists manifesting with specific findings:
- CNS: tuberculous meningitis and tuberuclous meningoencephalitis)
- spine: tuberculous spondylitis (Pott disease)
- gastrointestinal: ileocaecal tuberculosis
- genitourinary: renal tuberculosis
Widely variable dependent on the site of involvement. It is best to refer to site specific articles.
As tuberculous organ infection can mimic malignant disease recent studies have reported the usefulness of 18FDG PET-CT in evaluating and following up patients in whom the diagnosis is in doubt.
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- 2. Horsburgh CR, Barry CE, Lange C. Treatment of Tuberculosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 2015;373 (22): 2149-60. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1413919 - Pubmed citation
- 3. Skoura E, Zumla A, Bomanji J. Imaging in tuberculosis. Int. J. Infect. Dis. 2015;32: 87-93. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2014.12.007 - Pubmed citation
- 4. Vorster M, Sathekge MM, Bomanji J. Advances in imaging of tuberculosis: the role of ¹⁸F-FDG PET and PET/CT. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2014;20 (3): 287-93. doi:10.1097/MCP.0000000000000043 - Pubmed citation
- causative agent
- tuberculoma (tuberculous granuloma)
- tuberculous abscess
- miliary tuberculosis
- pulmonary tuberculosis
- cardiac tuberculosis
- intracranial tuberculosis
- tuberculous otomastoiditis
- gastrointestinal tuberculosis
- genitourinary tuberculosis
- skeletal tuberculosis
- tuberculous mastitis
- tuberculous lymphadenopathy
- tuberculous adrenalitis