Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

10,982 results found
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Anterior labroligamentous periosteal sleeve avulsion lesion

An anterior labroligamentous periosteal sleeve avulsion (ALPSA) lesion is similar to a Bankart lesion, in that it too is usually due to anterior shoulder dislocation and involves the anterior inferior labrum.  Unlike the Bankart lesion in which the labrum and glenoid periosteum is avulsed from ...
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Anterior lacrimal crest

The anterior lacrimal crest is a bony projection on the frontal process of the maxilla continuous with the orbital rim which creates the lateral margin of the lacrimal sac fossa. The medial palpebral ligament is attached to anterior lacrimal crest. Immediately anterior to the anterior lacrimal ...
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Anterior lateral malleolar artery

The anterior lateral malleolar artery is the counterpart to the anterior medial malleolar artery, supplies the lateral aspect of the ankle.  Gross anatomy Origin and course branch of anterior tibial artery runs posterior to the tendons of extensor digitorum longus and fibularis tertius to th...
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Anterior longitudinal ligament

The anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL) arises from the anteroinferior basilar portion of occipital bone, traverses the entire length of the spine, and ends on the anteriosuperior portion of the sacrum. The ALL runs along the anterior surface of the vertebral bodies (firmly united to the perio...
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Anterior medial malleolar artery

Anterior medial malleolar artery is the counterpart to the anterior lateral malleolar artery, and supplies the medial aspect of the ankle. Gross anatomy Origin and course branch of anterior tibial artery arises approximately 5 cm proximal to the ankle passes posterior to the tendons of exte...
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Anterior mediastinal germ cell tumours

Germ cell tumours are one of the causes of anterior mediastinal mass, and any of the germ cell histologies may be identified. They can therefore be divided histologically into: seminoma non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT) embryonal cell carcinoma choriocarcinoma yolk sac tumour tera...
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Anterior mediastinal mass in the exam

Getting a film with an anterior mediastinal mass in the exam is one of the many exam set-pieces that can be prepared for. The film goes up and after a couple of seconds pause, you need to start talking: CXR There is a left sided mediastinal mass that makes obtuse angles with the mediastinal c...
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Anterior mediastinum

The anterior mediastinum is the portion of the mediastinum anterior to the pericardium and below the thoracic plane. It forms the anterior part of the inferior mediastinum, and contains the thymus, lymph nodes, and may contain the portions of a retrosternal thyroid. Related pathology The comm...
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Anterior nares

The anterior nares (or nostrils) form the entrance to the nose. Each naris is formed by a ring of structures: medially the columella (soft tissue anteroinferior portion of the nasal septum) laterally and superiorly the ala inferiorly the nasal sill  
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Anterior pararenal space

The anterior pararenal space is the portion of the retroperitoneum that lies between the posterior surface of the parietal peritoneum and the anterior reflection of the perirenal fascia. Gross anatomy It contains the duodenum, pancreas and retroperitoneal segments of the ascending and descendi...
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Anterior perforated substance

The anterior perforated substance, or substantia perforata anterior, is an area in the basal forebrain that plays an important role with regards to the blood supply of deep grey matter structures of the brain. Gross anatomy Located within the basal forebrain, the anterior perforated substance...
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Anterior pituitary

The anterior pituitary (or adenohypophysis) is by far the largest part of the pituitary gland, and is responsible for synthesis and release of most pituitary hormones (with the exception of oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) which are released by the posterior pituitary). It consists of 3 ...
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Anterior ramus of the lateral sulcus

The anterior ramus of the lateral sulcus, is located at the very anterior end of the lateral sulcus (sylvian fissure), just anterior to the ascending ramus, and passes superiorly into the inferior frontal gyrus separating the pars orbitalis form the pars triangularis of the frontal operculum.  ...
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Anterior sacral meningocoele

Anterior sacral meningocoele is a congenital defect seen in the anterior aspect of the spine. It is defined as a meningeal cyst that occurs in the presacral space secondary to agenesis of a portion of the anterior sacrum.  Pathology Associations In approximately 50% of cases, associated malfo...
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Anterior shoulder capsular insertion

The anterior capsular insertion, unlike the posterior aspect of the shoulder joint capsule which has a constant scapular attachment along the margins of the glenoid labrum, inserts a variable distance from the labrum. The capsular insertions are classified as follows: type I: at or very near t...
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Anterior shoulder dislocation

Anterior shoulder dislocation is by far the commonest type of dislocation and usually results from forced abduction, external rotation and extension 1.  Epidemiology Broadly speaking, anterior shoulder dislocations occur in a bimodal age distribution. The first, and by far the more prevalent a...
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Anterior spinal artery

The anterior spinal artery supplies the anterior portion of the spinal cord and arises from the vertebral artery in the region of the medulla oblongata. The two vertebral arteries (one of which is usually bigger than the other) anastamose in the midline to form a single anterior spinal artery at...
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Anterior spinothalamic tract

The anterior spinothalamic tract, also known as the ventral spinothalamic fasciculus, is an ascending pathway located anteriorly within the spinal cord, primarily responsible for transmitting coarse touch and pressure.  The lateral spinothalamic tract (discussed separately), in contrast, primar...
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Anterior subluxation of cervical spine

Anterior subluxation of cervical spine (also known as hyperflexion sprain) is a ligamentous injury to the cervical spine. Clinical presentation Patient presents with neck pain. There may be symptoms due to spinal cord oedema. Pathology It results from ligamentous injury, however, there may b...
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Anterior superior alveolar canal

The anterior superior alveolar canal courses through the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus, and contains the anterior superior alveolar nerve, artery and vein. Usually, it shares a common channel with the infraorbital canal but when seen separately should not be confused for a fracture. 
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Anterior superior alveolar nerve

The anterior superior alveolar​ nerve, also known as the anterior superior dental nerve, is the third branch of the infra-orbital nerve, from the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve. It is the largest of the superior alveolar nerves and contributes to the superior dental plexus. Gross an...
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Anterior superior iliac spine

The anterior superior iliac spine is an important bony surface landmark and is the prominence is the most anterior part of the ilium. It can be palpated at the lateral end of the inguinal fold. Attachments include the inguinal ligament, tensor fasciae latae and sartorius. Clinically, as an easi...
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Anterior superior iliac spine avulsion injury

Anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) avulsion injuries typically occur in athletes during forceful muscular contraction. ASIS is the site of attachment for sartorius and tensor fascia latae muscles.  Pathology ASIS avulsion, like other pelvic avulsion injuries, is a stable fracture. Treatment...
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Anterior talofibular ligament

The anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) is part of the lateral collateral ligament complex of the ankle. Its role is to stabilise the talus. It is also the weakest of the lateral collateral ankle ligaments.  Gross anatomy The ATFL is an intra-capsular flat two-banded ligament that arises from...
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Anterior talofibular ligament injury

Anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) injury is the most common of the ligament injuries that can occur as part of the lateral ligament complex injuries 2. The injuries can comprise either soft tissue tears, avulsion fractures or both. Pathology ATFL injuries typically occur with an inversion i...
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Anterior temporal artery

The anterior temporal artery is usually a branch of the M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) that curves out of the Sylvian fissure and runs over the temporal lobe to supply the anterior third of the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri.  Variant anatomy The temporopolar arter...
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Anterior temporal lobe perivascular spaces

Anterior temporal lobe perivascular spaces are recently recognised special variants of tumefactive perivascular spaces, which can mimic cystic tumours with surrounding oedema. Epidemiology A predilection for women has been reported 1. Age range is wide, from 24 to 86 years old reported 1. Cli...
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Anterior tibial artery

The anterior tibial artery is the main arterial supply of the anterior compartment of the leg.  Gross anatomy The anterior tibial artery arises from the popliteal artery in the popliteal fossa and continues distally as the dorsalis pedis artery. Course The popliteal artery usually divides at...
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Anterior tibial translocation sign

The anterior tibial translocation sign or anterior drawer sign (a.k.a. anterior translation of tibia) is seen in cases of complete rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament, and refers to anterior translocation (anterior tibial subluxation) of the tibia relative to the femur of more than 7 mm 1. 
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Anterior tibial vein

The anterior tibial veins, continuations of the venae comitantes of the dorsalis pedis artery, leave the anterior compartment between the tibia and fibula and pass through the proximal end of the interosseous membrane. They unite with the posterior tibial veins to form the popliteal vein at the ...
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Anterior triangle

The anterior triangle forms the anterior compartment of the neck and is separated from the posterior triangle by the sternocleidomastoid muscle. The triangles of the neck are surgically focussed, first described from early dissection-based anatomical studies which predated cross-sectional anatom...
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Anterior ulnar recurrent artery

The anterior ulnar recurrent artery is a recurrent branch of the proximal ulnar artery that ascends in the anterior medial aspect of the elbow, anterior to the medial epicondyle of the humerus to anastomose with the inferior ulnar collateral artery (from the brachial artery) and contribute to th...
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Anterior vertebral body beaking

Anterior vertebral body beaking occurs in a number of conditions and may eminate from the central portion or the lower third of the vertebral body. Middle third Morquio syndrome 1 (middle for Morquio) Lower third Hurler syndrome 2 achondroplasia 3 pseudoachondroplasia 4 cretinism 5 Down ...
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Anterolateral ligament of the knee

The anterolateral ligament of the knee (ALL) is a ligament that is thought to aid with rotational stability of the knee joint. Some think that its presence (or reconstruction) may result in better outcomes from ACL stabilisation surgery 2. The ligament has also been implied in Segond fractures 3...
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Anterolisthesis

The term anterolisthesis refers to anterior displacement (forward slip) of vertebral body relative to one below.
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Anterosuperior mediastinal mass (mnemonic)

The common causes of an anterosuperior mediastinal mass can be remembered by using the mnemonic: 5 Ts Mnemonic T: thymus T: thyroid T: thoracic aorta T: terrible lymphoma T: teratoma and germ cell tumours - see mediastinal germ cell tumours Testicular cancer metastasis can represent a si...
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Anti-GQ1b IgG antibody syndrome

Anti-GQ1b IgG antibody syndrome refers to a number of conditions which share autoantibodies to the ganglioside complex GQ1b, and have overlapping clinical spectrums.  The conditions believed to represents various clinical manifestations of a common immunological disorder include 1:  acute opht...
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Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor encephalitis

Anti N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is an autoimmune encephalitis with antibodies against the NMDA receptors. It is sometimes considered a form of autoimmune limbic encephalitis. It usually affects young patients particularly young females, in about 60% of whom ovarian ter...
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Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitides

Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides refer to a group of heterogeneous autoimmune diseases characterized by necrotising vasculitides and positive anti-neutrophil antibody titres. They are reactive to either proteinase-3 (PR3-ANCA) - cANCA or myeloperoxidase (MPO-ANCA) - p...
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Anti-synthetase syndrome

Anti-synthetase syndrome (ASS) is a systemic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease that is characterised by inflammatory myositis, polyarthritis associated with interstitial lung disease (ILD) and anti-synthetase autoantibodies. Pathology ASS can result from autoantibodies to eight of the aminoacy...
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Antibiotic beads

Implanted antibiotic beads are a form of microbiological treatment inserted during orthopaedic procedures to aid with the treatment of chronic infection. They are also used as a local treatment for osteomyelitis. The beads are radiopaque, thus lending themselves to visualisation on all imaging ...
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Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea

Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea can be broadly divided into two groups: Clostridium difficile colitis non-specific diarrhoea The former is a life-threatening condition, requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment whereas the later is milder and self-limiting.  Both result from changes in the bo...
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Antimuscarinics in MRI protocols

Antimuscarinics decrease bowel movements in pelvic MRI, and may be used for better image acquisition. Usually, 20mg of hyoscine butylbromide IM/IV is administered prior to examination. Contraindications Myasthenia gravis Pyloric stenosis Benign prostatic hyperplasia Paralytic ileus Additi...
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Antiphospholipid syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disorder. It is usually defined as the clinical complex of vascular occlusion and ischaemic events occurring in patients who have circulating antiphospholipid antibodies. Pathology Patients have circulating antiphospholipid antibodies cross-re...
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Antiphospholipid syndrome (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary involvement in antiphospholipid syndrome is one of the most frequent arterial complications of antiphospholipid syndrome.  Pathology It is essentially related to pulmonary arterial microthrombosis and may cause a wide spectrum of conditions, which include 3-5: pulmonary thromboembol...
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Antithrombin III deficiency

Antithrombin (AT) III deficiency (now simply called antithrombin deficiency) refers to a congenital lack of the endogenous anticoagulant antithrombin. Epidemiology Antithrombin deficiency is considered the least common of the three main anticoagulant deficiencies (the other two being protein C...
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Antopol-Goldman lesion

Antopol-Goldman lesions are very rare presentations of subepithelial haemorrhage in the renal pelvis, presenting as discrete mass-like haematomas. Pathology The cause of these lesions is uncertain, although non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) overuse, trauma, and amyloidosis have been...
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Antral follicle count

Antral follicle count (AFC) or basal antral follicle count is a test performed to check a female individual's ovarian reserve.  Principle A female is born with a lifetime supply of eggs and as she enters puberty these eggs develop. During and after puberty these follicles develop and are relea...
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Antral nipple sign

The antral nipple sign refers to redundant pyloric mucosa protruding into the gastric antrum and is seen in pyloric stenosis. See also cervix sign of pyloric stenosis target sign of pyloric stenosis shoulder sign of pyloric stenosis
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Antral pad sign

The antral pad sign is a feature seen on a spot radiograph of the upper gastrointestinal tract obtained with orally-administered contrast material. It refers to the extrinsic impression or indentation on the posteroinferior aspect of the antrum. The impression is generally arcuate and smooth, an...
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Antrochoanal polyp

Antrochoanal polyps (ACP) are solitary sinonasal polyps that arise within the maxillary sinus. They pass to the nasopharynx through the sinus ostium and posterior nasal cavity, enlarging the latter two. Similar, less common, polyps can arise in the sphenoid sinus extending into the nasopharynx:...
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Antrolith

An antrolith is a calcified mass within the maxillary sinus. The origin of the nidus of calcification may be extrinsic (foreign body in sinus) or intrinsic (stagnant mucus, fungal ball). Most antroliths are small and asympotomatic. Larger ones may present as sinusitis with symptoms like pain a...
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AO classification of proximal humeral fractures

The AO classification of proximal humeral fractures, along with the Neer classification, is one of the most frequently used systems for classifying proximal humeral fractures.  The AO classification divides proximal humeral fractures into three groups, A, B and C, each with subgroups, and place...
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Aorta

The aorta, the great artery, is the largest artery of the human body and carries oxygenated blood ejected from the left ventricle to the systemic circulation. It is divided into: thoracic aorta ascending aorta aortic arch descending aorta abdominal aorta It has branches from each section a...
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Aortic aneurysm

The broad term aortic aneurysm is usually reserved for pathology discussion. More specific anatomic and radiologic discussion is based on the location of the aneurysm: thoracic aortic aneurysm abdominal aortic aneurysm
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Aortic annulus

The aortic annulus is a fibrous ring at the aortic orifice to the front and right of the atrioventricular aortic valve and is considered the transition point between the left ventricle and aortic root. The annulus is part of the fibrous skeleton of the heart. It is at the level of the sinus of V...
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Aortic arch

The aortic arch represents the direct continuation of the ascending aorta and represents a key area for a review of normal variant anatomy and a wide range of pathological processes that range from congenital anomalies to traumatic injury. Summary origin: continuation of the ascending aorta at...
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Aortic arch branches (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the major branches of the aortic arch is: ABC'S ​Mnemonic A: arch of aorta B: brachiocephalic trunk C: left common carotid artery S: left subclavian artery  
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Aortic dissection

Aortic dissection is the most common form of the acute aortic syndromes and a type of arterial dissection. It occurs when blood enters the medial layer of the aortic wall through a tear or penetrating ulcer in the intima and tracks along the media, forming a second blood-filled channel within th...
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Aortic hiatus

The aortic hiatus is one the three major apertures through the diaphragm and lies at the level of T12. Strictly speaking, it is not a real aperture in the diaphragm, but an osseoaponeurotic opening between it and the vertebral column.  The hiatus is situated slightly to the left of the midline ...
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Aortic intramural haematoma

Aortic intramural haematoma (IMH) is an atypical form of aortic dissection due to haemorrhage into the wall from the vasa vasorum without an intimal tear. It is part of the acute aortic syndrome spectrum. Epidemiology Typically aortic intramural haematomas are seen in older hypertensive patien...
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Aortic isthmus

The aortic isthmus is the part of the aorta just distal to the origin of the left subclavian artery at the site of the ductus arteriosus. This portion of the aorta is partly constricted in the fetus because of the lack of flow within the aortic sac and ascending aorta. It marks the partial sepa...
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Aortic nipple

An aortic nipple is seen in about 10% of PA chest x-rays on the lateral surface of the aortic arch/aortic knob. It represents the left superior intercostal vein. When prominent, superior vena cava obstruction should be considered as the left superior intercostal vein serves as a collateral path...
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Aortic pseudoaneurysm

Aortic pseudoaneurysms typically occur as a result of trauma, a subset of traumatic aortic injury. They can be acute or chronic. Pathology Aortic pseudoaneurysms are contained ruptures of the aorta in which the majority of the aortic wall has been breached, and luminal blood is held in only by...
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Aortic root

The aortic root is the first part of the aorta and connects the heart to the systemic circulation.  Gross anatomy The aortic root lies between the junction of the aortic valve and ascending aorta. It has several subparts 1: three aortic valve leaflets and leaflet attachments three aortic sin...
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Aortic spindle

Aortic spindles are an anatomical variant of the proximal descending thoracic aorta. It occurs just distal to the aortic isthmus and has a circumferential smooth bulging appearance.  Differential diagnosis ductus diverticulum: not circumferential aortic pseudoaneurysm thoracic aortic aneurysm
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Aortic valve

The aortic valve is one of the four cardiac valves. It is the semilunar valve that allows blood to exit the left ventricle. It opens during systole and closes during diastole. The valve has left, right and posterior cusps, the bases of which attach around the valve orifice to a fibrous ring or a...
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Aortic valve stenosis

Aortic valve stenosis (also known as aortic stenosis) is the most common type of valvular heart disease that requires valve replacement. It can be classified according to the anatomical location: supravalvular, valvular and subvalvular 1.  Epidemiology There are several causes of aortic valve ...
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Aortic-pulmonary stripe

The aortic-pulmonary stripe is an uncommon feature of frontal chest x-rays and was first described by Keats in 1972 1. It is formed by the interface of the pleural surface of the anterior segment of the left upper lobe contacting the mediastinal fat that is anterolateral to the pulmonary trunk ...
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Aortitis

Aortitis refers to a general descriptor that involves a broad category of infectious and non-infectious conditions where there is inflammation (i.e. vasculitis) of the aortic wall. Clinical presentation The presentation is non-specific with fever, pain and weight loss.  Pathology  Aetiology ...
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Aorto-left renal vein fistula

Aorto-left renal vein fistula is an extremely rare complication of abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture. The initial clinical presentation is often non-specific, however, characteristic imaging findings, if recognised early, can lead to prompt diagnosis and assist in surgical planning.  Epidemiolo...
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Aortocaval fistula

Aortocaval fistula is a rare and devastating complication of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), wherein the aneurysm erodes into the inferior vena cava. Epidemiology Spontaneous rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm into the adjacent inferior vena cava occurs in <1% of all aneurysms and in ~3...
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Aortoenteric fistula

Aortoenteric fistula is an uncommon catastrophic cause of gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Aortic fistulas can be primary (associated with complicated abdominal aortic aneurysm) or secondary (associated with graft repair). Epidemiology The annual incidence of primary aortoenteric fistulas is thou...
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Aortoiliac occlusive disease

Aortoiliac occlusive disease refers to complete occlusion of the aorta distal to the renal arteries. Terminology When the clinical triad of impotence, pelvis and thigh claudication, and absence of the femoral pulses are present, it may also be called Leriche syndrome, which usually affects you...
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Aortopulmonary septal defect

Aortopulmonary septal defect (APSD), also known as aortopulmonary window (APW), is a congenital anomaly where there is an abnormal communication between the proximal aorta and the pulmonary trunk in the presence of separate aortic and pulmonary valves. Terminology APSD should not be confused w...
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Aortopulmonary window

The aortopulmonary (aortic-pulmonary or AP) window is a radiological mediastinal space seen on frontal chest x-rays. Terminology The term "aortopulmonary window" can also refer to a rare form of congenital heart disease, where there is an opening between the aorta and the pulmonary trunk 4. It...
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Aortosternal venous compression

Aortosternal venous compression refers to compression of the brachiocephalic vein as a result of its position between the sternum and the aorta(or regional arteries). It can occur with normal as well as variant anatomy (aberrant right subclavian artery 1). Clinical presentation It is asymptoma...
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Apert syndrome

Apert syndrome (also known as type I acrocephalosyndactyly) is a syndrome that is predominantly characterised by skull and limb malformations. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at 1:65-80,000 pregnancies. Pathology Thought to occur from a defect on the fibroblast growth factor receptor...
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Apgar score

Apgar score was originally described by Virginia Apgar (American anaesthesiologist, 1909-1974) in 1952. Helpfully, her surname is also a useful mnemonic for remembering the 5 factors: each is graded as 0, 1 or 2 with a total possible score of 10. The lower the score the worse the prognosis. Th...
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Aphthoid ulceration

Aphthoid ulcers are shallow ulcers of the gastrointestinal mucosa. Pathology Aetiology infective inflammatory conditions Yersinia enterocolitis amoebic enterocolitis cytomegalovirus enterocolitis noninfective inflammatory conditions Crohn disease idiopathic granulomatous gastritis vasc...
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Apical ligament

The apical ligament is a small ligament that joins the apex (tip) of the dens of C2 to the anterior margin (basion) of the foramen magnum. It is the weak, fibrous remnant of the notochord and does not contribute significant stability. The more posterior alar and cruciate ligaments are stronger ...
Article

Apical lung disease (mnemonic)

A handy mnemonic to remember common apical lung diseases is: SET CARP or CARPETS Mnemonic S: sarcoidosis E: eosinophilic pneumonia T: tuberculosis C: cystic fibrosis A: ankylosing spondylitis R: radiation pneumonitis P: pneumoconiosis
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Apical pleural cap

Apical pleural cap refers to a curved density at the lung apex seen on chest radiograph. Epidemiology The frequency of apical pleural thickening increases with age 3. Pathology It arises from a number of causes: pleural thickening/scarring idiopathic: chronic ischaemic aetiology is favoure...
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Apical zone

The apical zone is one of the four chest radiograph zones and an important location for missed diagnoses when reporting a frontal chest radiograph and makes up one of the "check areas". It is sometimes thought of as a subdivision of the upper zone.  Radiographic features Plain radiograph port...
Article

Aplastic anaemia

Aplastic anaemia is a rare haematopoietic stem-cell disorder. The condition results in pancytopaenia and hypocellular bone marrow. Most cases are acquired, however there are unusual inherited forms. Pathophysiology Aplastic anaemia manifests as a marked reduction in the number of pluripotent h...
Article

Apocrine carcinoma of the breast

Apocrine carcinoma of the breast is a rare variant of breast cancer. The diagnosis is mainly pathological as it is difficult to differentiate from other forms of breast cancer on imaging. Epidemiology It accounts for about 4% of all cases. It is seen most often in females in the age group of 5...
Article

Apocrine metaplasia of the breast

Apocrine metaplasia of the breast is a benign breast condition and is sometimes considered part of or associated with fibrocystic change. It is a common finding in the female breast, particularly after the age of 25, and many regard it as a normal component of the breast. Epidemiology Seen mos...
Article

Apophyseal avulsion fractures of the pelvis and hip

Apophyseal avulsion fractures of the pelvis and hip are relatively common among physically active adolescents and young adults. Epidemiology Pelvic and hip apophyseal injuries typically occur in the 14 to 25 year age range. Kicking sports, such as soccer, and gymnastics are frequently to blame...
Article

Apophysis

The apophysis (pl: apophyses) is a normal bony outgrowth that arises from a separate ossification centre and fuses with the bone in course of time. The apophysis is a site of tendon or ligament attachment, as compared to the epiphysis which contributes to a joint. When unfused, they can easily ...
Article

Apophysis of the proximal 5th metatarsal

The apophysis of the proximal 5th metatarsal lies laterally and is oriented longitudinally parallel to the shaft. Apophysis of the fifth metatarsal base appears on plain radiographs at age 12 for boys and 10 for girls. Fusion of the apophysis to the metatarsal base usually occurs within the fol...
Article

Apostrophe use and eponyms

Apostrophes are used according to standard English grammar rules. They are used for possessives and to indicate missing letters.  When using a possessive it's usually by adding "'s" at the end, e.g. "the patient's disease". Apostrophes should not be used for pluralisation, e.g. "apostrophes" an...
Article

Apparent diffusion coefficient

Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is a measure of the magnitude of diffusion (of water molecules) within tissue, and is commonly clinically calculated using MRI with diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) 1.  Basics Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is widely appreciated as an indispensable tool i...
Article

Appendiceal carcinoid

Appendiceal carcinoids are rare overall but represent the most common tumour of the appendix. The appendix is also one of the most common (but not the most common) locations for gastrointestinal carcinoid tumours.  Clinical presentation Appendiceal carcinoids can present as the obstructive cau...

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