Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

12,141 results found
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Anorexia nervosa (CNS manifestations)

CNS manifestations of anorexia nervosa are common but varied with most of the imaging features non-specific in their own right.  For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to the article on anorexia nervosa. Epidemiology Studies have identifi...
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ANOVA

ANOVA (ANalysis Of VAriance) is a statistical technique commonly seen in radiology research. ANOVA analyses are conceptually similar to the student t-test, but involve comparison of multiple groups at once. The alternative to an ANOVA would be multiple head-to-head t-tests, but this would likel...
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Anoxic brain injury

Anoxic brain injury, also known as global hypoxic-ischaemic injury, is seen in all age groups (from antenatal to the elderly) as a result of numerous aetiologies. The pattern of injury depends on a number of factors including: age of the patient (brain maturity) neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic ence...
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Ansa cervicalis

The ansa cervicalis (or ansa hypoglossi, an archaic synonym) is a component of the cervical plexus which gives muscular branches to the geniohyoid muscle of the suprahyoid group and all four of the infrahyoid (strap) muscles.  Gross anatomy Roots superior root: derived from the anterior prima...
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Ansa pancreatica

The ansa pancreatica is a rare type of anatomical variation of the pancreatic duct. It is a communication between the main pancreatic duct (of Wirsung) and the accessory pancreatic duct (of Santorini). Recently, the ansa pancreatica has been considered as a predisposing factor in patients with i...
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Anteater nose sign (foot)

The anteater nose sign refers to an anterior tubular elongation of the superior calcaneus which approaches or overlaps the navicular on a lateral radiograph of the foot. This fancifully resembles the nose of an anteater and is indicative of calcaneonavicular coalition 1,2.  History and etymolog...
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Antegrade ureteric stent

Antegrade ureteric stents are performed under fluoroscopic guidance, typically by an interventional radiologist or urologist. It is performed via percutaneous access from the kidney. It is usually performed using the access from a prior percutaneous nephrostomy, a so-called two-step procedure, a...
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Antenatal features of Down syndrome

Antenatal screening of Down syndrome (and other less common aneuploidies) should be available as a routine component of antenatal care. It allows families to either adjust to the idea of having a child with the condition or to consider termination of pregnancy. For a general description of Down...
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Antenatal screening

Antenatal screening and diagnosis are currently available for a few selected genetic conditions, including trisomy 21 (Down syndrome), trisomy 18 (Edward syndrome), trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) and neural tube defects. For an overview of the conditions and their manifestations, please refer to t...
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Antenatal soft markers on ultrasound

Antenatal soft ultrasound markers are fetal sonographic findings that are generally not abnormalities as such but are indicative of an increased age adjusted risk of an underlying fetal aneuploidic or some non chromosomal abnormalities. Most of the described features do not constitute a structu...
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Antepartum haemorrhage

Antepartum haemorrhage (APH) refers to vaginal bleeding during the second half of pregnancy (> 20 weeks gestation). APH may occur in varying degrees from mild to severe, with concomitant risk to mother and baby and potential to result in severe maternal/fetal compromise, including death. Epidem...
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Anterior abdominal wall

The anterior abdominal wall forms the anterior limit of the abdominal viscera and is defined superiorly by the xiphoid process of the sternum and costal cartilages and inferiorly by the iliac crest and pubic bones of the pelvis. Gross anatomy The anterior abdominal wall has seven layers (from ...
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Anterior angulation of the coccyx

Anterior angulation of the coccyx may be a normal variant but poses a diagnostic challenge for those considering coccygeal trauma. Classification Four types of coccyx have been described: type I: the coccyx is curved slightly forward, with its apex pointing caudally (~70%) type II: the coccy...
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Anterior ankle impingement syndrome

Anterior ankle impingement (AAI) syndrome is the result of chronic repetitive trauma with impingement of the anterior tibia against the talus. Clinical presentation Clinical features of anterior ankle impingement syndrome include painful and limited dorsiflexion and anterior joint line swellin...
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Anterior ankle tendons (mnemonic)

A mnemonic that refers to the order of the ankle tendons that pass under the extensor retinaculum of the ankle running from medial to lateral is: Tom Hates Dick Mnemonic T: tibialis anterior H: extensor hallucis longus D: extensor digitorum longus History and etymology The phrase Tom, Di...
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Anterior atlanto-occipital membrane

The anterior atlanto-occipital membrane is a thin membrane that joins the upper border of the anterior arch of the atlas (C1) to the anterior inferior surface of the foramen magnum. It is a continuation of the anterior longitudinal ligament above the C1 level. It is immediately posterior to the ...
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Anterior bronchus sign

The anterior bronchus sign refers to the appearance of the anterior segmental bronchus of the upper lobes as seen on a frontal chest radiograph. Normal anatomy The anterior segment bronchus of the upper lobes courses anteriorly and laterally. When the orientation is predominantly anteriorly th...
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Anterior cardiac veins

The anterior cardiac veins are a group of parallel coronary veins that course over the anterior surface of the right ventricle, draining it and entering directly into the right atrium. They may occasionally drain into the small cardiac vein. 
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Anterior cardinal veins

The anterior cardinal veins are paired transient embryologic venous vessels which deliver venous return to the heart starting at about 4 weeks of gestation 1. Embryogenesis The anterior cardinal veins begin their embryological development as symmetric venous channels draining blood from the cr...
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Anterior cerebral artery

The anterior cerebral artery along with the middle cerebral artery forms at the termination of the internal carotid artery. It is the smaller of the two, and arches anteromedially to pass anterior to the genu of the corpus callosum, dividing as it does so into its two major branches; pericallosa...
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Anterior cerebral artery (ACA) infarct

Anterior cerebral artery (ACA) territory infarcts are much less common than either middle or posterior cerebral artery territory infarcts.  Epidemiology ACA territory infarcts are rare, comprising ~2% of ischaemic strokes 1,2.  Clinical presentation ACA stroke syndrome presents as 1,2,3: dy...
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Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF)

Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a commonly performed spinal fusion procedure for the decompression of the cervical cord due to disc protrusions and posteriorly projecting osteophytes.  Technique The procedure is carried out via an anterolateral neck incision with surgical app...
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Anterior cervical space

The anterior cervical space is a small infrahyoid compartment of the head and neck. It is a fat containing space and is not enclosed by fascia 1. Gross anatomy Contents areolar fat Relations posterior: carotid space medial: visceral space superior: submandibular space Related pathology ...
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Anterior choroidal artery

The anterior choroidal artery (AChA) supplies several crucial anatomical structures of the brain important for vision and motor control. Identification of AChA is important because of its strategic and extensive area of supply as well as large variations in the territorial distribution. Gross a...
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Anterior choroidal artery syndrome

Anterior choroidal artery syndrome is a rare entity characterised by the triad of hemiplegia, hemianaesthesia and contralateral hemianopia as a result of cerebral infarction in the anterior choroidal artery territory. The syndrome may also be associated with neuropsychological disorders, includ...
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Anterior cingulate cortex

The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), previously known as the precingulate, is a region of the brain surrounding the anterior corpus callosum. It is involved in the limbic system and the prefrontal cortex. Summary location: it is located superior to the anterior corpus callosum, more specifical...
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Anterior commissure

The anterior commissure (AC) is a transversely oriented commissural white matter tract that connects the two cerebral hemispheres along the midline. It is a very important anatomical landmark that connects different parts of the limbic system on both sides and plays a role in the interhemispheri...
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Anterior commissure of the larynx

The anterior commissure of the larynx is the anterior junction point of the true vocal cords. It is bounded anteriorly by the thyroid cartilage and is part of the laryngeal glottis.
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Anterior commissure - posterior commissure line

The anterior commissure - posterior commissure line (AC-PC line), also known as the bicommissural line, has been adopted as a convenient standard by the neuroimaging community, and in most instances is the reference plane for axial imaging in everyday scanning. The creation of a standard image p...
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Anterior communicating artery

The anterior communicating artery (ACOM) arises from the anterior cerebral artery and acts as an anastomosis between the left and right anterior cerebral circulation. Approximately 4 mm in length, it demarcates the junction between the A1 and A2 segments of the anterior cerebral artery. Branche...
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Anterior compartment of the arm

The anterior compartment of the arm is one of the two compartments of the arm. A sheath of deep fascia surrounds the arm, the brachial fascia. Two intermuscular septa (medial and lateral) extend from it to attach to the humerus at the medial condylar ridge and lateral supracondylar ridge, respe...
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Anterior compartment of the forearm

The forearm is divided into the anterior compartment and the posterior compartment by the deep fascia, lateral intermuscular septum and the interosseous membrane between the ulna and radius.  Muscles The eight muscles located in the anterior compartment of the forearm can be divided into three...
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Anterior compartment of the leg

The anterior compartment of the leg is one of the four compartments in the leg between the knee and foot. Muscles within this compartment primarily produce ankle dorsiflexion and toe extension. The leg is separated into anterior, lateral, superficial posterior and deep posterior compartments by...
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Anterior compartment of the thigh

The anterior compartment of the thigh is one of the three compartments in the thigh. Muscles within this compartment primarily produce hip flexion and knee extension. The thigh is separated into anterior, posterior and medial (adductor) compartments by intermuscular septa and surrounded by the ...
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Anterior corticospinal tract

The anterior corticospinal tract is formed at the level of the of the medullary pyramids, where the majority (90%) of descending corticospinal tract fibres decussate to form the lateral corticospinal tract. The majority of the remaining non-decussating 10% of fibres form the much smaller anterio...
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Anterior cranial fossa

The anterior cranial fossa constitutes the floor of cranial vault which houses the frontal lobes of the brain. Gross anatomy Structures present in the midline of anterior cranial fossa from anterior to posterior are:  groove for superior sagittal sinus groove for anterior meningeal vessels ...
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Anterior cruciate ligament

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the two cruciate ligaments that stabilise the knee joint.  Gross anatomy The ACL arises from the anteromedial aspect of the intercondylar area on the tibial plateau and passes upwards and backwards to attach to the posteromedial aspect of the lateral ...
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Anterior cruciate ligament avulsion fracture

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) avulsion fracture or tibial eminence avulsion fracture is a type of avulsion fracture of the knee. This typically involves separation of the tibial attachment of the ACL to variable degrees. Separation at the femoral attachment is rare 5. Epidemiology It is mor...
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Anterior cruciate ligament ganglion cyst

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ganglion cysts, commonly referred to simply as ACL cysts, along with ganglion cysts arising from the alar folds that cover the infrapatellar fat pad, make up the vast majority of intra-articular ganglion cysts of the knee. Epidemiology Anterior cruciate ligamen...
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Anterior cruciate ligament mucoid degeneration

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) mucoid degeneration, along with tears and anterior cruciate ligament ganglion cysts, is a relatively common cause of increased signal within the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The appearance can mimic acute or chronic interstitial partial tears of the ACL. How...
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Anterior cruciate ligament tear

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are the most common knee ligament injury encountered in radiology and orthopaedic practice. Pathology The ACL is the most commonly disrupted ligament of the knee, especially in athletes who participate in sports that involve rapid starting, stopping, and ...
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Anterior dislocation of the hip

Anterior hip dislocation is much less common than a posterior hip dislocation. It constitutes for only 5-18% of all hip dislocations. Pathology While the posterior dislocation is often associated with fractures, the anterior dislocation is mostly an isolated injury 1. Subtypes It can be clas...
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Anterior division of the mandibular nerve

The anterior division of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve has four branches, which are all motor branches except one. The four branches are: deep temporal nerves lateral pterygoid nerves masseteric nerve buccal nerve
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Anterior epitympanic recess

The anterior epitympanic recess, also known as the supratubal recess, is a small discrete space in the epitympanum anterior to the malleus. It is separated from the epitympanum proper by the anterior attic bony plate, also known as the cog, which has its orientation in the coronal anatomical pla...
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Anterior ethmoidal artery

The anterior ethmoid artery is a branch of the ophthalmic artery. It supplies the anterior and middle ethmoidal sinuses, frontal sinus, the lateral nasal wall and the nasal septum (see nasal cavity). Gross anatomy It traverses the anterior ethmoidal foramen with the anterior ethmoidal nerve (w...
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Anterior ethmoidal foramen

The anterior ethmoid foramen is a small opening in the ethmoid bone. It is the anatomical border of anterior and posterior ethmoid air cells. It transmits the anterior ethmoidal artery, vein and nerve. The anterior ethmoid foramen is situated 25 mm away from the lacrimal crest, 12 mm anterior t...
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Anterior ethmoidal nerve

The anterior ethmoidal nerve is an extraconal branch of the nasociliary nerve, a branch of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. Some authors describe it as either the terminal branch or a direct continuation of the nasociliary nerve.  It branches off distal to the infratrochlear nerv...
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Anterior fontanelle

The anterior or frontal fontanelle (or fontanel) is the diamond-shaped soft membranous gap at the junction of the coronal and sagittal sutures. It persists until approximately 18-24 months after birth, after which it is known as the bregma. The fontanelle normally measures between 0.6-3.6 cm (me...
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Anterior fontanelle inclusion cyst

Anterior fontanelle inclusion cysts, also commonly referred to as congenital dermoid inclusion cysts, are cystic lesions overlying the anterior fontanelle without communication with the underlying intracranial compartment.  Terminology Although the term congenital dermoid inclusion cyst is mor...
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Anterior glenolabral injuries

Anterior glenolabral injuries are common in the setting of anterior shoulder dislocation and comprise a number of closely related entities. Bankart lesion bony Bankart lesion anterior labroligamentous periosteal sleeve avulsion (ALPSA) Perthes lesion glenolabral articular disruption (GLAD) ...
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Anterior hip pain

Causes of anterior hip pain include: osteoarthritis synovitis including pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) synovial osteochondromatosis inflammatory arthropathy (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis) iliopsoas bursitis ganglion cyst synovial cyst muscle tear malignancy inguinal adenopathy ...
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Anterior horn syndrome

Anterior horn syndrome is a fairly generic term used to refer to flaccid paralysis and areflexia due to involvement of the anterior grey matter horns of the spinal cord. Sensation is typically preserved.  Causes of anterior horn syndrome include:  anterior spinal artery ischaemia  poliomyelit...
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Anterior humeral circumflex artery

The anterior humeral circumflex artery is a vessel arising from the axillary artery at the proximal part of the arm. It is smaller in size relative to the posterior humeral circumflex artery.  Summary origin: branch of the axillary artery at the proximal part of the arm location: proximal arm...
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Anterior humeral line

The anterior humeral line is key to demonstrating normal elbow alignment and should be used whenever reading a paediatric elbow radiograph to exclude a subtle supracondylar fracture. The rule A line drawn down the anterior surface of the humerus should intersect the middle third of the capitel...
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Anterior inferior cerebellar artery

The anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) is one of three vessels that provides arterial blood supply to the cerebellum. It has a variable origin, course and supply, with up to 40% of specimens not having an identifiable standard AICA. The amount of tissue supplied by the AICA is variable (...
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Anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) infarct

Anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) territory infarcts are much less common than posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) infarcts. Epidemiology AICA territory infarcts are rare, comprising ~1% of ischaemic cerebellar strokes 2.  Clinical presentation AICA stroke syndrome presents ...
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Anterior inferior iliac spine

The anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) is bony prominence on the anterior border of the ilium forming the superior border of the acetabulum. Attachments include the Iliacus, origin of straight head of the rectus femoris, and also the proximal ileofemoral ligament (Y-ligament or ligament of Bi...
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Anterior inferior iliac spine avulsion injury

Anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) avulsion injuries are one of the six main types of pelvic apophyseal avulsion fractures. Subacute or chronic avulsion injuries can be mistaken for a pseudotumour.  Epidemiology As with many pelvic avulsion injuries, they most often occur in adolescents (mos...
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Anterior intercostal arteries

The intercostal spaces are supplied by pairs of posterior and anterior intercostal arteries. Gross Anatomy The 1st to 6th anterior intercostal arteries arise directly from the lateral aspect of the internal thoracic artery. The 7th to 9th arise from the musculophrenic artery, a branch of the i...
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Anterior interosseous artery

The anterior interosseous artery is one of the two branches of the short common interosseous artery (from the ulnar artery). The artery courses deep in the anterior compartment of the forearm on the anterior surface of the interosseous membrane along with the anterior interosseous nerve (from th...
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Anterior interosseous nerve

The anterior interosseous nerve also known as the volar interosseous nerve arises from the median nerve in the forearm, and supplies the flexor pollicis longus, pronator quadratus and the lateral portion of flexor digitorum profundus. Gross anatomy Origin The anterior interosseous nerve conti...
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Anterior interosseous nerve syndrome

Anterior interosseous nerve syndrome (AINS), also known as Kiloh-Nevin syndrome, is one of three common median nerve entrapment syndromes; the other two being pronator teres syndrome and the far more common carpal tunnel syndrome. Epidemiology AINS is a rare entrapment syndrome, with comparati...
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Anterior jugular vein

The anterior jugular vein is a paired tributary of the external jugular vein. Gross anatomy Location It arises beneath the chin in the region of the hyoid bone or suprahyoid neck. Origin and course The anterior jugular vein has its origin as the confluence of several small superficial subma...
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Anterior junction line

The anterior junction (or junctional) line is a feature of frontal chest radiographs and chest CTs. It is a result of the parietal and visceral pleura meeting anteromedially. It normally contains a small amount of fat but can form a stripe of variable thickness if there is a lot of fat present o...
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Anterior knee fat pads

There are three anterior knee fat pads 1: infrapatellar fat pad (of Hoffa) fills the space between the patella ligament and the anterior intercondylar area of the tibia 2 posterior suprapatellar (prefemoral or supratrochlear) fat pad anterior suprapatellar (quadriceps) fat pad fills the spa...
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Anterior knee pain

Anterior knee pain is common with a variety of causes including: patella fracture osteoarthritis inflammatory and depositional arthritis bursitis around the knee patellofemoral maltracking excessive lateral pressure syndrome (ELPS) patellar cartilage defect patellofemoral chondromalacia ...
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Anterior labroligamentous periosteal sleeve avulsion lesion

An anterior labroligamentous periosteal sleeve avulsion (ALPSA) lesion is similar to a Bankart lesion, in that it too is usually due to anterior shoulder dislocation and involves the anterior inferior labrum.  Epidemiology It is often the result of chronic injury rather than acute dislocation;...
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Anterior lacrimal crest

The anterior lacrimal crest is a bony projection on the frontal process of the maxilla continuous with the orbital rim which creates the lateral margin of the lacrimal sac fossa. The medial palpebral ligament is attached to anterior lacrimal crest. Immediately anterior to the anterior lacrimal ...
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Anterior lateral malleolar artery

The anterior lateral malleolar artery is the counterpart to the anterior medial malleolar artery, supplies the lateral aspect of the ankle.  Gross anatomy Origin and course branch of anterior tibial artery runs posterior to the tendons of extensor digitorum longus and fibularis tertius to th...
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Anterior left perihepatic space

The anterior left perihepatic (or subhepatic) space is a potential space located between the diaphragm and the anterosuperior aspect of the left lobe of the liver. Gross anatomy The anterior left perihepatic space is separated from the posterior left perihepatic space by the left lobe of the ...
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Anterior left subphrenic space

The anterior left subphrenic space is a potential space between the fundus of the stomach and the left hemidiaphragm 1,2. Gross anatomy The anterior left subphrenic space is a subcompartment of the left supramesocolic space. Boundaries medial: falciform ligament (separates it from the anter...
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Anterior longitudinal ligament

The anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL) runs along the anterior surface of the vertebral bodies (firmly united to the periosteum) and intervertebral discs (attaching to the anterior annulus). It ascends from the anterosuperior portion of the sacrum inferiorly to the become the anterior atlanto-...
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Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF)

Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) is a spinal fusion procedure usually performed at L5/S1 or L4/5.  It is carried out either via a transabdominal or lateral retroperitoneal approach. A discectomy is performed, an interbody spacer introduced and fixed in place with screws with or without a...
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Anterior medial malleolar artery

Anterior medial malleolar artery is the counterpart to the anterior lateral malleolar artery, and supplies the medial aspect of the ankle. Gross anatomy Origin and course branch of anterior tibial artery arises approximately 5 cm proximal to the ankle passes posterior to the tendons of exte...
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Anterior mediastinal germ cell tumours

Germ cell tumours are one of the causes of anterior mediastinal mass, and any of the germ cell histologies may be identified. They can therefore be divided histologically into: seminoma non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT) embryonal cell carcinoma choriocarcinoma yolk sac tumour tera...
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Anterior mediastinal mass in the exam

Getting a film with an anterior mediastinal mass in the exam is one of the many exam set-pieces that can be prepared for. The film goes up and after a couple of seconds pause, you need to start talking: CXR There is a left sided mediastinal mass that makes obtuse angles with the mediastinal c...
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Anterior mediastinum

The anterior mediastinum is the portion of the mediastinum anterior to the pericardium and below the thoracic plane. It forms the anterior part of the inferior mediastinum, and contains the thymus, lymph nodes, and may contain the portions of a retrosternal thyroid. Related pathology The comm...
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Anterior nares

The anterior nares (singular: naris) (or nostrils) form the entrance to the nose. Each naris is formed by a ring of structures: medially the columella (soft tissue anteroinferior portion of the nasal septum) laterally and superiorly the nasal ala inferiorly the nasal sill  
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Anterior pararenal space

The anterior pararenal space is the portion of the retroperitoneum that lies between the posterior surface of the parietal peritoneum and the anterior reflection of the perirenal fascia. Gross anatomy It contains the duodenum, pancreas and retroperitoneal segments of the ascending and descendi...
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Anterior perforated substance

The anterior perforated substance, or substantia perforata anterior, is an area in the basal forebrain that plays an important role with regards to the blood supply of deep grey matter structures of the brain. Gross anatomy Located within the basal forebrain, the anterior perforated substance...
Article

Anterior pituitary

The anterior pituitary (or adenohypophysis) is by far the largest part of the pituitary gland, and is responsible for synthesis and release of most pituitary hormones (with the exception of oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) which are released by the posterior pituitary). It consists of 3 ...
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Anterior ramus of the lateral sulcus

The anterior ramus of the lateral sulcus, is located at the very anterior end of the lateral sulcus (sylvian fissure), just anterior to the ascending ramus, and passes superiorly into the inferior frontal gyrus separating the pars orbitalis form the pars triangularis of the frontal operculum.  ...
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Anterior right subhepatic space

The anterior right subhepatic space is a potential space between the inferior surface of the right lobe of the liver and the transverse colon. Gross Anatomy The anterior right subhepatic space is separated from Morison’s pouch (also known as the posterior right subhepatic space) by the transve...
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Anterior sacral meningocele

Anterior sacral meningocele is a congenital defect seen in the anterior aspect of the spine. It is defined as a meningeal cyst that occurs in the presacral space secondary to agenesis of a portion of the anterior sacrum. Pathology Associations In approximately 50% of cases, associated malform...
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Anterior shoulder capsular insertion

The anterior capsular insertion, unlike the posterior aspect of the shoulder joint capsule which has a constant scapular attachment along the margins of the glenoid labrum, inserts a variable distance from the labrum. The capsular insertions are classified as follows: type I: at or very near t...
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Anterior shoulder dislocation

Anterior shoulder dislocation is by far the commonest type of dislocation and usually results from forced abduction, external rotation and extension 1.  Epidemiology Broadly speaking, anterior shoulder dislocations occur in a bimodal age distribution. The first, and by far the more prevalent a...
Article

Anterior spinal artery

The anterior spinal artery supplies the anterior portion of the spinal cord and arises from the vertebral artery in the region of the medulla oblongata. The two vertebral arteries (one of which is usually bigger than the other) anastamose in the midline to form a single anterior spinal artery at...
Article

Anterior spinal commissure

The anterior spinal commissure connects the left and right sides of the spinal cord anteriorly. It is located between the posterior-most extent of the anterior median fissure anteriorly and the ventral grey matter commissure posteriorly 1.  It is composed of anterior and lateral spinothalamic t...
Article

Anterior spinothalamic tract

The anterior spinothalamic tract, also known as the ventral spinothalamic fasciculus, is an ascending pathway located anteriorly within the spinal cord, primarily responsible for transmitting coarse touch and pressure.  The lateral spinothalamic tract (discussed separately), in contrast, primar...
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Anterior subluxation of the cervical spine

Anterior subluxation of the cervical spine, also known as hyperflexion sprain, is a ligamentous injury of the cervical spine. Clinical presentation Patients present with severe, focal neck pain. There may be neurological symptoms due to spinal cord injury. Pathology Anterior subluxation of t...
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Anterior superior alveolar canal

The anterior superior alveolar canal courses through the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus, and contains the anterior superior alveolar nerve, artery and vein. Usually, it shares a common channel with the infraorbital canal but when seen separately should not be confused for a fracture. 
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Anterior superior alveolar nerve

The anterior superior alveolar​ nerve, also known as the anterior superior dental nerve, is the third branch of the infra-orbital nerve, from the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve. It is the largest of the superior alveolar nerves and contributes to the superior dental plexus. Gross an...
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Anterior superior iliac spine

The anterior superior iliac spine is an important bony surface landmark and is the prominence is the most anterior part of the ilium. It can be palpated at the lateral end of the inguinal fold. Attachments include the inguinal ligament, sartorius and depending on which resource you read, the ten...

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