Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

1,027 results found
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Acquired tracheo-oesophageal fistula

An acquired tracheo-oesophageal fistula refers to a pathological communication between the trachea and oesophagus due to a secondary cause  Pathology Acquired causes of tracheo-oesophagal fistulae can be divided into those that are related to malignancy (common) and those from other causes (un...
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Root of the mesentery

The root of the mesentery, or root of the small bowel mesentery to be exact, is the origin of the mesentery of the small intestine (i.e. jejunum and ileum) from the posterior parietal peritoneum., attached to the posterior abdominal wall. It extends from the duodenojejunal flexure to the ileocae...
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Irish node

An Irish node is an enlarged axillary lymph node, often associated with advanced gastric cancer1.
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Gossypiboma

A gossypiboma, also called textiloma or cottonoid, refers to a foreign object, such as a mass of cotton matrix or a sponge, that is left behind in a body cavity during an operation. It is an uncommon surgical complication. The manifestations and complications of gossypibomas are so variable tha...
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Abdomen (dorsal decubitus view)

The dorsal decubitus view is a supplementary projection often replacing the lateral decubitus view in the context of an unstable patient who is unable to roll nor stand. Used to identify free intraperitoneal gas (pneumoperitoneum). It can be performed when the patient is unable to be transferred...
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Gastrointestinal stromal tumour

Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumours of the gastrointestinal tract. They account for ~5% of all sarcomas. They respond remarkably well to chemotherapy.  Terminology Previously these tumours have been variably referred to as leiomyomas, leiomyosarcomas...
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Carney-Stratakis syndrome

Carney-Stratakis syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant condition comprising of familial paraganglioma and gastric stromal sarcoma. Terminology It is considered to be distinct from, but perhaps related to, the Carney triad 1. Neither should be confused with the unrelated Carney complex. Histor...
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Gastric lymphoma

Gastric lymphoma may either represent secondary involvement by systemic disease or primary malignancy confined to the stomach.  Epidemiology  Gastric lymphoma represents the most common site of extranodal lymphoma, accounting for 25% of all such lymphomas, 50% of all gastrointestinal lymphomas...
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Pancreatic pseudocyst

Pancreatic pseudocysts are common sequelae of acute pancreatitis or chronic pancreatitis, and the most common cystic lesion of the pancreas. They are important both in terms of management and differentiation from other cystic processes or masses in this region. Terminology The following are th...
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Splenomegaly

Splenomegaly is a term which refers to enlargement of the spleen. The normal adult splenic length upper limit is usually around 12-15 cm. It can also be helpful to know how to calculate splenic index, volume and mass by CT and MR techniques. Massive splenomegaly is a term used when the spleen we...
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Peritoneal hydatidosis

Peritoneal hydatidosis occurs secondary to seeding of echinococcosis to the peritoneum, usually secondary to rupture of hydatid disease of liver. Pathology Seeding involves the entire peritoneum and gives appearance of an multiloculated mass.  Classification Peritoneal hydatidosis can be pri...
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Carney triad

The Carney triad is a rare syndrome defined by the coexistence of three tumours: extra-adrenal paraganglioma (e.g. spinal paraganglioma) initially, only functioning extra-adrenal paragangliomas were included, but subsequent work includes non-functioning extra-adrenal paragangliomas 1 gastric ...
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Paraganglioma

Paragangliomas, sometimes called glomus tumours, are rare neuroendocrine tumours arising from paraganglia.  Terminology Paraganglia are clusters of neuroendocrine cells dispersed throughout the body and closely related to the autonomic nervous system, with either parasympathetic or sympathetic...
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Peritoneal metastases

Peritoneal metastases are a relatively common location for metastases, particularly from tumours of the abdomen and pelvis, that generally imply a poor prognosis, often with a significant impact on palliation 1. Terminology If peritoneal metastases are of an epithelial origin (as most are) and...
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Normal gastrointestinal tract imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the gastrointestinal tract and surrounding structures, divided by modality. Plain radiograph example 1: abdominal film example 2: erect and supine example 3, example 4: paediatric example 5: young adult male Barium studies example 1, exampl...
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Ligament of Treitz

The ligament of Treitz, also known as the suspensory ligament of the duodenum, is a double fold of peritoneum suspending the duodenojejunal flexure from the retroperitoneum. It is often used interchangeably with duodenojejunal (DF) flexure. Anatomy The ligament of Treitz is comprised of two p...
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Necrotising enterocolitis

Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal condition in premature neonates. It is characterised by inflammation, ischaemia, and permeability of the neonatal bowel wall to bacteria. It is potentially life-threatening with significant associated morbidity 1. Epidemiology ...
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Epiploic appendagitis

Epiploic appendagitis is a rare self limiting inflammatory/ischaemic process involving an appendix epiploica of the colon and may either be primary or secondary to adjacent pathology. This article pertains to primary (spontaneous) epiploic appendagitis. The term along with omental infarction is ...
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Adrenal metastases

Adrenal metastases are the most common malignant lesions involving the adrenal gland. Metastases are usually bilateral but may also be unilateral. Unilateral involvement is more prevalent on the left side (ratio of 1.5:1). Epidemiology They are present at autopsy in up to 27% of patients with ...
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Anatomy curriculum

The anatomy curriculum is one of our curriculum articles and aims to be a collection of articles that represent the core anatomy knowledge for radiologists and imaging specialists. General anatomy Neuroanatomy Head and neck anatomy Thoracic anatomy Abdominal and pelvic anatomy Spinal anat...
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Bowel wall thickening

Bowel wall thickening is a useful finding on imaging studies and has a number of different causes. Pathology The reason for bowel wall thickening depends on the underlying aetiology but includes submucosal oedema, haemorrhage, and neoplastic infiltration. Radiographic features In describing ...
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Foramen of Morgagni

The foramina of Morgagni, also known as the sternocostal triangles, are small defects in the posterior aspect of the anterior thoracic wall between the sternal and costal attachments of the diaphragm. The internal thoracic vessels descend through these foramina to become the superior epigastric ...
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Infectious colitis

Infectious colitis refers to inflammation of the colon due to an infective cause, including bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections. Epidemiology In Western countries, bacterial infection is the most common cause, while in developing countries parasitic infection is much more common....
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Proctalgia fugax

Proctaglia fugax is a disorder characterised by rectal pain that is considered to be functional in aetiology, and thus is a diagnosis of exclusion. Clinical presentation The classic presentation, which form the Rome IV diagnostic criteria if all present for three months, include 1,2: recurren...
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Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder

Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), also referred as post-transplant lymphoproliferation disorder, represents a variety of conditions ranging from lymphoid hyperplasia to malignancy, included in the 2008 WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. It ca...
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Falciform ligament

The falciform ligament is a broad and thin peritoneal ligament. It is sickle-shaped (Latin: "falciform") and a remnant of the ventral mesentery of the fetus. It is situated in an anteroposterior plane but lies obliquely so that one surface faces forward and is in contact with the peritoneum beh...
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Splenic lesions and anomalies

There are a number of splenic lesions and anomalies: Congenital anomalies accessory spleen wandering spleen asplenia polysplenia splenogonadal fusion retrorenal spleen Mass lesions Benign mass lesions splenic cyst (mnemonic) splenic pseudocyst splenic haemangioma: commonest benign sp...
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Closed loop obstruction

Closed loop obstruction is a specific type of small bowel obstruction in which two points along the course of a bowel are obstructed at a single location thus forming a closed loop. Closed loop usually rotates around its axis, forming a small intestinal volvulus. Clinical presentation  Patient...
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Rectal foreign bodies

Rectal foreign bodies are not uncommon in emergency departments around the world, and although they are often the source of endless amusement do potentially cause management difficulties. Epidemiology The incidence varies according to the region, said to be uncommon in Asia and most common in ...
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CEC syndrome

CEC syndrome refers to the combination of coeliac disease, epilepsy and bilateral occipital calcifications. This is also known as Gobbi syndrome. Patients with cerebral calcifications and coeliac disease without epilepsy are considered as having an incomplete form of CEC syndrome 1. Epidemiolog...
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Linitis plastica

Linitis plastica is a descriptive term usually referring to the appearance of the stomach, although the rectum can also be described this way. The appearance is said to be reminiscent of an old leather water-bottle. Pathology The underlying cause is usually a scirrhous adenocarcinoma with diff...
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Coeliac disease

Coeliac disease, also known as non-tropical sprue, is a T-cell mediated autoimmune chronic gluten intolerance condition characterised by a loss of villi in the proximal small bowel and gastrointestinal malabsorption (sprue). It should always be considered as a possible underlying aetiology in c...
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Splenic infarction

Splenic infarction is a result of ischaemia to the spleen, and in many cases requires no treatment. However, identification of the cause of infarction is essential.   Epidemiology Splenic infarcts can occur due to a number of processes, involving either arterial supply, the spleen itself or th...
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Pseudopneumoperitoneum

Pseudopneumoperitoneum describes any gas within the abdominal cavity that masquerades as free intraperitoneal gas or pneumoperitoneum when it is in fact contained within an organ. Correctly identifying pneumoperitoneum is important, but making the diagnosis in error may lead to further unnecessa...
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Splenic calcification

Splenic calcifications can occur is various shapes and forms and can occur from a myriad of aetiological factors. The usual calcification observed in radiographs are the multiple, miliary form presenting numerous small rounded densities averaging from three to five millimeters in diameter where...
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Down syndrome

Down syndrome (or trisomy 21) is the most common trisomy and also the commonest chromosomal disorder. It is a major cause of intellectual disability, and also has numerous multi-system manifestations. Epidemiology According to the world health organisation (WHO), the approximate worldwide inci...
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Complications following gastric banding

There are many complications that can occur following gastric banding. It is helpful to divide these into early and late post-surgical complications. Clinical presentation Although the exact mode of presentation can vary depending on the underlying complication common modes of presentation tha...
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Lipase

Lipase, more specifically pancreatic lipase, is an enzyme produced in the pancreas and is responsible for the digestion of fat molecules. It may be raised in numerous pancreatic, hepatobilary and other diseases but is most commonly associated with acute pancreatitis. Physiological basis Lipase...
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Gastric leiomyoma

Gastric leiomyomas are rare benign mesenchymal tumours, usually asymptomatic and found incidentally.  Clinical presentation Most leiomyomas are found incidentally in asymptomatic patients. Symptoms related to a gastric leiomyoma will depend on the tumour size, location, and presence/absence of...
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Pancreatic calcifications

Pancreatic calcifications can arise from many aetiologies. Punctate intraductal calcifications chronic pancreatitis alcoholic pancreatitis (20-40%) 2  intraductal, numerous, small, irregular preponderant cause of diffuse pancreatic intraductal calcification gallstone pancreatitis (2%) 2 ​...
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Sigmoid volvulus

Sigmoid volvulus is a cause of large bowel obstruction and occurs when the sigmoid colon twists on its mesentery, the sigmoid mesocolon. Epidemiology Large bowel volvulus accounts for ~5% of all large bowel obstructions, with ~60% of intestinal volvulus involving the sigmoid colon 6. It is mor...
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Appendiceal mucocele

Appendiceal mucoceles occur when there is an abnormal accumulation of mucin causing abnormal distention of the vermiform appendix due to various neoplastic or non-neoplastic causes. Epidemiology The reported prevalence at appendectomy is 0.2-0.3%. They are thought to typically present in middl...
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Simple pancreatic cyst

Simple pancreatic cysts, also known as true epithelial cysts or retention cysts, are unilocular cysts within the pancreas, lined by a monolayer of epithelium, which lack communication with the pancreatic ducts 1,5. In contradistinction to other solid viscera, simple cysts in the pancreas are a r...
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Hartmann pouch

​Hartmann pouches​ are a technique in colon surgery. After a segment of colon is resected, there are generally two options with regards to what to do with the two ends of the colon. both the upstream end of the colon (the end of the colon through which faecal contents would pass) and the downst...
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Bariatric intragastric balloon therapy

Bariatric intragastric balloon therapy is a relatively new form of weight loss therapy, which involves a balloon being endoscopically-placed or swallowed and inflated inside the lumen of the stomach. The balloon resides in the stomach and the mechanism of action is presumably due to stretching t...
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Great vessel space

The great vessel space is the fourth retroperitoneal space along with the anterior and posterior pararenal spaces, and the perirenal space 1,2. Unlike other retroperitoneal spaces, it is not well-defined by fascial planes and thus disease processes affecting other retroperitoneal spaces can also...
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Chronic mesenteric ischaemia

Chronic mesenteric ischaemia is an uncommon type of intestinal ischaemia usually affecting elderly patients as a result of significant stenosis of two or more mesenteric arteries. Epidemiology Normally seen in patients older than 60 years of age and is three times more common in women. Clinic...
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Reflux management systems

Reflux management systems refer to medical devices that offer an alternative to surgical based treatments for severe and medically refractory gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Indications for the surgical management of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease include gastro-oesophageal reflux disease...
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Bird beak sign (right colon)

The bird beak sign of the right colon is tapering obstruction of the inferior part of right colon seen on contrast enema or CT scan with rectal contrast indicating caecal volvulus. This sign can help to differentiate caecal volvulus from caecal bascule, in particular on a contrast/barium enema ...
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Bird beak sign (sigmoid colon)

Bird's beak sign of the sigmoid is one of the signs of sigmoid volvulus. It represents gradual narrowing/tapering of sigmoid colon up to the level of obstruction during contrast/barium insertion to the rectum or on CT. When located in the sigmoid colon, it suggests the diagnosis of sigmoid volv...
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Whirlpool sign (mesentery)

The whirlpool sign of the mesentery, also known as the whirl sign, is seen when the bowel rotates around its mesentery leading to whirls of the mesenteric vessels.  Terminology The term whirlpool sign is used in other contexts: see whirlpool sign (disambiguation). Radiographic features It is...
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Phlegmonous gastritis

Phlegmonous gastritis (also known as phlegmonitis of the stomach) is an uncommon, life-threatening condition which is due to diffuse infection of the submucosa of the stomach.  Epidemiology Although the gastric form is the commonest type of phlegmonitis seen in the GI tract, it remains rare, w...
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Perianal fistula

Perianal fistula (or fistula-in-ano) is the presence of a fistulous tract across/between/adjacent to the anal sphincters and is usually an inflammatory condition 4. Epidemiology Incidence is estimated at ~1:10 000 1, with a recognised male predilection of 2-4:1. Associations spontaneous div...
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Spigelian hernia

Spigelian hernia, also known as lateral ventral hernia, is a type of abdominal hernia along the semilunar line, resulting in herniation between the muscles of the abdominal wall. Epidemiology They are rare and account for ~1% (range 0.1-2%) of ventral hernias 2,3. The incidence is thought to p...
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Indirect inguinal hernia

Indirect inguinal hernias are the most common type of abdominal hernias. Epidemiology It is five times more common than a direct inguinal hernia, and is seven times more frequent in males, due to the persistence of the processus vaginalis during testicular descent.  In children, the vast majo...
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Acute phlegmonous oesophagitis

Acute phlegmonous oesophagitis is a very rare disorder in which there is a diffuse bacterial infection within the submucosa of the oesophagus 1. Terminology Usually there is co-infection of the stomach (phlegmonous gastritis), and if both the stomach and oesophagus are involved it is called ph...
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HIV oesophagitis

HIV oesophagitis is a possible cause of odynophagia in immunosuppressed patients with HIV. Epidemiology The actual incidence and prevalence of Idiopathic oesophagitis of HIV are unknown. Most of the patients have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and CD4 count <100 3. Clinical present...
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Phlegmonous enteritis

Phlegmonous enteritis is a rare, life threatening disorder characterized by bacterial infection of the submucosal and muscularis layers of the gastrointestinal tract. The stomach is the most commonly involved site, with more than 100 cases reported in the literature. The mortality rate due to ph...
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Gastrointestinal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection

Cytomegalovirus infection of the gastrointestinal tract is usually seen in patients who are severely immunocompromised, such as solid organ transplantation and is common in HIV/AIDS, and is, in fact, the most common gastrointestinal manifestation of AIDS 1,2.  Epidemiology Approximately 30% of...
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Herpes oesophagitis

Herpes oesophagitis is one of the infectious oesophagitis that usually affects immunocompromised patients.  Epidemiology  It occurs as an opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients, particularly those with AIDS. It has also been described in immunocompetent individuals 3. Pathology...
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Ulcerative colitis

Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease that not only predominantly affects the colon, but also has extraintestinal manifestations. Epidemiology Typically ulcerative colitis manifests in young adults (15-40 years of age) and is more prevalent in males but the onset of disease after...
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Comb sign (mesentery)

The comb sign refers to the hypervascular appearance of the mesentery in active Crohn disease. Fibrofatty proliferation and perivascular inflammatory infiltration outline the distended intestinal arcades. This forms linear densities on the mesenteric side of the affected segments of small bowel,...
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Sudeck point

The Sudeck point (or Sudeck critical point) refers to a specific location in the arterial supply of the rectosigmoid junction, namely the origin of the last sigmoid arterial branch from the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) 1.  This arterial branch usually forms an anstomosis with a branch of th...
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Hide-bound sign (bowel)

The hide-bound bowel sign refers to an appearance on a barium study of the small bowel in patients with scleroderma. The sign describes the narrow separation between the valvulae conniventes which are of normal thickness despite dilatation of the bowel lumen.   Although the term hide-bound is u...
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Sigmoid volvulus versus caecal volvulus

The following points may be helpful to distinguish between sigmoid volvulus and caecal volvulus on plain film. Sigmoid volvulus arises in the pelvis (left lower quadrant) extends towards the right upper quadrant ahaustral in appearance sigmoid volvulus causes obstruction of the proximal lar...
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Mucous fistula

​Mucous fistulas​ are a connection between bypassed colon and the skin surface. It is a type of colostomy, but instead of letting ingested contents pass out of the body, a mucous fistula allows release of colonic secretions, mucus, and gas so that they do not build up over time. The mucous fist...
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Thumbprinting

Thumbprinting is a radiographic sign of large bowel wall thickening, usually caused by oedema, related to an infective or inflammatory process (colitis). The normal haustra become thickened at regular intervals appearing like thumbprints projecting into the aerated lumen. Pathology Aetiology ...
Article

Ladd bands

Ladd bands are the most commonly encountered form of peritoneal bands in disarrangement of intestines, e.g. intestinal malrotation. Pathology Classically they extend from the abnormally positioned caecum to peritoneum and liver, crossing the duodenum in their course. Extension, however, can in...
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Caecal volvulus

Caecal volvulus describes torsion of the caecum around its mesentery which often results in obstruction. If unrecognised, it can result in bowel perforation and faecal peritonitis. Epidemiology Caecal volvulus accounts for ~10% of all intestinal volvuluses, and generally occur in somewhat youn...
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Virgin abdomen

Virgin abdomen is used to describe the abdomen of a patient who has never had any surgical procedure on their abdomen. It is usually used in the context of someone presenting with an acute small bowel obstruction and whether adhesions might be the underlying aetiology. The conventional wisdom be...
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Pancreatitis

Pancreatitis (plural: pancreatitides) refers to inflammation involving the pancreas.  It has various forms which can be classified in many many ways according to time of onset, aetiological agent or associated pathology. acute pancreatitis interstitial oedematous pancreatitis necrotising pan...
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Splenic brucellosis

Brucellosis is a common zoonosis, which is particularly prevalent in Mediterranean countries. It produces a multisystemic illness that can present with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations and complications 1. This article is focusing on the splenic involvement by brucellosis. For genera...
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Intestinal ischaemia

Intestinal ischaemia refers to vascular compromise of the bowel which in the acute setting has a very high mortality if not treated expediently. Diagnosis is often straightforward, provided appropriate imaging is obtained and sometimes subtle findings sought out. The disease can be arbitrarily c...
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Small bowel ischaemia

Small bowel or mesenteric ischaemia may be a life-threatening condition, arising from any one of numerous causes of disturbance of the normal blood flow through the small bowel wall.  Pathology It can be divided into acute and chronic forms, with the main underlying aetiologies (each discussed...
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Scleroderma

Scleroderma, also known as systemic sclerosis, is an autoimmune connective tissue disorder characterised by multisystem fibrosis and soft tissue calcification. As such, it affects many separate organ systems, which are discussed separately: musculoskeletal manifestations of scleroderma pulmona...
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Serous cystadenoma of pancreas

Serous cystadenoma of the pancreas (or microcystic adenoma) is an uncommon type of benign cystic pancreatic neoplasm.  Epidemiology There is a recognised strong female predilection (M:F ~ 1:4) and usually presents in middle age to elderly patients (>60 years of age).  Clinical presentation M...
Article

Oesophageal intubation

Oesophageal intubation refers to the incorrect placement of an endotracheal tube in the oesophagus. Within minutes its consequences can be catastrophic with the seriousness of its outcome depending largely on the timeliness of its diagnosis. Epidemiology Accidental oesophageal intubation can h...
Article

Shading sign (endometrioma)

Shading sign is an MRI finding typically seen in an endometrioma. It may also be seen with some endometrioid tumours (e.g endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary) It helps to distinguish endometriomas from other blood-containing lesions (e.g. haemorrhagic corpus luteum cysts), with a sensitivity of...
Article

Endocrine tumours of the pancreas

Endocrine tumours of the pancreas arise from the pancreatic islet cells and include some distinct tumours that match the cell type of origin.  Terminology Pancreatic endocrine tumours have commonly been referred to as "islet cell tumours", referring to the islets of Langerhans, from which they...
Article

Typhlitis

Typhlitis, also called caecitis or neutropaenic colitis, is a necrotising inflammatory condition which typically involves the caecum and, sometimes, can extend into the ascending colon or terminal ileum. Epidemiology Typhlitis was first described in children with leukaemia and severe neutropae...
Article

Arc of Riolan

The arc of Riolan, also known as the mesenteric meandering artery (of Moskowitz) or central anastomotic mesenteric artery, is an arterio-arterial anastomosis between the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries. Gross anatomy It is an inconstant artery that connects the proximal superior mese...
Article

Inguinal hernia

Inguinal hernia is a type of abdominal wall hernia 1. Epidemiology They are the commonest type of abdominal wall herniation (up to 80% 3) and are most often acquired. There is a recognised male predilection with an M:F ratio of up to 7:1 3. Clinical presentation Patients most commonly presen...
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Primary retroperitoneal neoplasms

Primary retroperitoneal neoplasms are an extremely rare group of tumours (lymphoma is not included in this definition). The most common type is soft tissue sarcoma (90%). Epidemiology The most common age for presentation is 40-50 years.  Clinical presentation Frequently tumours have relative...
Article

Von Hippel-Lindau disease

Von Hippel-Lindau (vHL) disease is characterised by the development of numerous benign and malignant tumours in different organs (at least 40 types 1) due to mutations in the VHL tumour suppressor gene on chromosome 3. Epidemiology The disease is rare with an estimated prevalence of 1:35,000-5...
Article

Idiopathic eosinophilic oesophagitis

Idiopathic eosinophilic oesophagitis is an inflammatory disease of the oesophagus characterised by eosinophilia that can involve all the layers of the oesophagus.  Epidemiology It is most commonly seen in males aged 20-40. It is an uncommon disease; however not rare.  Clinical presentation P...
Article

Non-neoplastic solid lesions of the pancreas

Non-neoplastic solid lesions of the pancreas are conditions which may mimic pancreatic neoplasms on imaging. They include: focal pancreatitis autoimmune pancreatitis fatty infiltration-replacement intrapancreatic accessory spleen peripancreatic lymph node congenital anomalies prominent pa...
Article

Splenic trauma

Splenic trauma can occur after blunt or penetrating trauma or secondary to medical intervention (i.e. iatrogenic). The spleen is the most frequently injured internal organ after blunt trauma. Epidemiology In blunt trauma, the spleen can account for up to 49% of abdominal organ injuries 2. Cli...
Article

Hypertriglyceridaemia-induced pancreatitis

Hypertriglyceridaemia-induced pancreatitis is an uncommon form of acute pancreatitis caused by high levels of circulating triglycerides in the blood. Epidemiology Hypertriglyceridaemia-induced pancreatitis accounts for around 1-4% of cases of acute pancreatitis and is the third most common cau...
Article

Spleen

The spleen is an organ of the haematological system and has a role in immune response, storage of red blood cells and haematopoiesis. Gross anatomy The spleen is a wedge-shaped organ lying mainly in the left upper quadrant (left hypochondrium and partly in the epigastrium) and is protected by ...
Article

Peptic ulcer disease

Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) encompasses a number of entities, united by the presence of mucosal ulceration secondary to the effects of gastric acid. Since the recognition of Helicobacter pylori as a common causative agent, and the development of powerful anti-acid medications, peptic ulcer diseas...
Article

Small bowel faeces sign

The small bowel faeces sign can be observed on abdominal CT scans. The sign has been described as a finding specific for small bowel obstruction or another severe small bowel abnormality (e.g. metabolic or infectious disease). While the reported prevalence of the sign in small bowel obstruction ...
Article

Feline oesophagus

Feline oesophagus also known as oesophageal shiver, refers to the transient transverse bands seen in the mid and lower oesophagus on a double contrast barium swallow. Pathology The appearance is almost always associated with active gastro-oesophageal reflux 2,3 and is thought to be due to cont...
Article

Colon polyp

Colon polyps are mucosal outgrowths of the colon wall. They are of interest to physicians and radiologists because of the accepted progression of adenomatous polyps to colon carcinoma. Pathology adenomatous colon polyps tubular polyps tubulovillous polyps villous colon polyps dysplastic co...

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