Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

932 results found
Article

Cone-shaped caecum (differential)

A cone-shaped caecum refers to a loss of the normal rounded appearance of the caecum, which instead becomes narrow and cone-shaped with the apex pointing towards the base of the appendix. It is encountered in a number of conditions including: inflammatory infective blastomycosis amoebiasis ...
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Comb sign (mesentery)

The comb sign refers to the hypervascular appearance of the mesentery in active Crohn disease.  Fibrofatty proliferation and perivascular inflammatory infiltration outline the distended intestinal arcades. This forms linear densities on the mesenteric side of the affected segments of small bowel...
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Coffee-bean sign (sigmoid colon)

The coffee-bean sign (also known as the kidney bean sign or bent inner tube sign 4) is a sign on an abdominal plain radiograph of a sigmoid volvulus although some authors have also used the term to refer to closed loop small bowel obstructions. Caecal volvulus may be mistaken with sigmoid volvul...
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (staging)

Both endocrine and exocrine tumours of the pancreas are now staged by a single pancreatic staging system. Staging of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is with the TNM system, and as a majority of tumours are not-resectable, this is mostly achieved with imaging (typically CT scan) although laparo...
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Triple bubble sign

The triple bubble sign is the classic radiographic appearance observed in jejunal atresia 1,2. The appearance is due to a proximal obstruction caused by the atretric jejunum. It is equivalent to the double bubble sign, but a third bubble is seen because of proximal jejunal distention.
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Jejunal atresia

Jejunal atresia is a congenital anomaly characterised by obliteration of the lumen of the jejunum. The site of the atresia can be anywhere from the ligament of Treitz to the jejunoileal junction. There can be more than one atretic segment. This article will focus on jejunal atresia alone but be...
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Small bowel carcinoid

The small bowel is the most common site of carcinoid tumours, accounting for 42% of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumours 1. Within the small bowel, the most common site is at the terminal ileum 2. Clinical Features Small bowel carcinoid are slow growing and may present with vague symptoms 1,3: ...
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Splenomegaly

Splenomegaly is a term which refers to enlargement of the spleen. The normal adult splenic length upper limit is usually around 12-15 cm. Also one should know how to calculate splenic index, volume and mass by CT and MR techniques. Massive splenomegaly is a term used when the spleen weighs > 100...
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Cobblestone appearance (hollow viscera)

Cobblestoning (having a cobblestone appearance) can occur in a number of hollow organs with mucosa, most commonly the bowel, in the setting of Crohn disease.  Longitudinal and circumferential fissures and ulcers separate islands of mucosa, giving it an appearance reminiscent of cobblestones.  ...
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Carman meniscus sign

The Carman meniscus sign describes the lenticular shape of barium in cases of large and flat gastric ulcers, in which the inner margin is convex toward the lumen. It usually indicates a malignant ulcerated neoplasm; in cases of benign gastric ulcers, the inner margin is usually concave toward th...
Article

Centipede sign (mesentery)

The centipede sign is seen as engorged mesenteric vessels in cases of acute sigmoid diverticulitis which gives an appearance similar to a centipede 1.
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Nasogastric tube positioning

Assessment of nasogastric (NG) tube positioning is a key competency of all doctors as unidentified malpositioning may have dire consequences, including death. The ideal position should be in the sub-diaphragmatic position in the stomach - identified on a plain chest radiograph as overlying the ...
Article

Benign post-traumatic pseudopneumoperitoneum

Benign post-traumatic pseudopneumoperitoneum is the presence of ectopic gas typically between the 5th-10th intercostal spaces after high-energy trauma in the absence of other causes of pseudopneumoperitoneum such as pneumomediastinum 9.  Epidemiology Occurs with an incidence of 5% post-trauma...
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Medical devices in the abdomen and pelvis

Medical devices in the abdomen and pelvis are important to be recognised, just like medical devices of the chest. Often we ignore these devices, considering them to be incidental and non-pathological, however it is essential to be aware of potential complications. Gastrointestinal tubes stomac...
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Ischaemic colitis

Ischaemic colitis refers to inflammation of the colon secondary to vascular insufficiency and ischaemia. It is sometimes considered under the same spectrum as intestinal ischaemia. The severity and consequences of the disease are highly variable. Epidemiology Ischaemic bowel is typically a dis...
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Bird beak sign (right colon)

The bird beak sign of the right colon is tapering obstruction of the inferior part of right colon seen on contrast enema or CT scan with rectal contrast indicating caecal volvulus. This sign can help to differentiate caecal volvulus from caecal bascule, in particular on a contrast/barium enema ...
Article

Bilateral adrenal gland hyperenhancement

Bilateral adrenal gland hyperenhancement or intense adrenal enhancement may be a feature of hypotension and forms part of the CT hypoperfusion complex. Adrenal gland hyperenhancement has been described in paediatric and small adult series or individual cases of haemorrhagic shock, pancreatitis,...
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Beak sign (pyloric stenosis)

Beak sign in pyloric stenosis is one of the fluoroscopic (barium meal) findings which is useful in the diagnosis of congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.  Radiographic features Barium meal A beak-like tapering projection of barium is seen entering into the narrowed and compressed pyloric ...
Article

Ball of wool sign (hydatid cyst)

The ball of wool sign, also referred to as the yarn sign or congealed water lily sign, is an ultrasound appearance, representing degeneration of hydatid cysts (WHO class CE 4). The inner side of the cyst detaches from the cyst wall and folds on itself, causing a change from anechoic (fluid) to a...
Article

Backwash ileitis

Backwash ileitis is seen in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), where the entire colon is involved. In such cases the terminal ileum is oedematous. Backwash ileitis extends contiguously backward from the caecum without skip regions. One source estimates it to occur in 6% of patients with UC,...
Article

Arrowhead sign (caecum)

The arrowhead sign refers to the focal caecal thickening centred on the appendiceal orifice, seen as a secondary sign in acute appendicitis. The contrast material in the caecal lumen assumes an arrowhead configuration, pointing at the appendix.   The arrowhead sign is applicable only when enter...
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Apple core sign (colon)

The apple core sign, also known as a napkin ring sign (bowel), is most frequently associated with constriction of the lumen of the colon by a stenosing annular colorectal carcinoma. Differential diagnosis The appearance of the apple-core lesion of the colon also can be caused by other diseases...
Article

Antral pad sign

The antral pad sign is a feature seen on a spot radiograph of the upper gastrointestinal tract obtained with orally-administered contrast material. It refers to the extrinsic impression or indentation on the posteroinferior aspect of the antrum. The impression is generally arcuate and smooth, an...
Article

Accordion sign (colon)

The accordion sign is seen on CT examinations of the abdomen and refers to the similarity between the thickened oedematous wall of pseudomembranous colitis and the folds of an accordion. This appearance is the result of oral contrast being trapped between oedematous haustral folds and pseudomemb...
Article

Abnormal bowel wall attenuation patterns

Abnormal bowel wall attenuation patterns on CT scan can be grouped under five categories: white enhancement gray enhancement water halo sign fat halo sign black attenuation The first three patterns are seen on contrast studies. White enhancement It is defined as uniform enhancement of th...
Article

Stepladder sign (small bowel obstruction)

Stepladder sign represents the appearance of air-fluid distended small bowel loops that appear to be stacked on top of each other, typically observed on erect abdominal radiographs in the setting of small bowel obstruction.  On breast imaging, the stepladder sign is used to describe intracapsul...
Article

Lymphocele of the thoracic duct

Introduction Lymphocele of the thoracic duct (thoracic duct cyst) is usually asymptomatic or less commonly may present as  left supraclavicular fossa mass 1. The clinical significance of a thoracic duct cyst lies in its misidentification as a pathological lesion at radiological assessment, whi...
Article

Perivascular epithelioid cell tumours (PEComas)

Perivascular epithelioid cells tumours (PEComas) are a group of related mesenchymal tumours and tumour-like conditions found in many locations. This group includes: angiomyolipoma (AML) clear cell 'sugar' tumour of the lung lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) clear cell myomelanocytic tumour (CCM...
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Gastrointestinal tract lipomas

Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) lipomas are not common and can be found anywhere along the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract.  Epidemiology GIT lipomas are most frequently encountered between the ages of 50 and 70 years 3. Clinical presentation The majority of lipomas are asymptomatic...
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Splenic rupture

Atraumatic or spontaneous splenic rupture is rare, especially when compared to traumatic splenic rupture.  Pathology The pathogenesis of atraumatic splenic rupture is not well understood. Splenomegaly is present in almost all patients (~95%), although rupture of normal spleens (both in size an...
Article

Lemmel syndrome

Lemmel syndrome is defined as an obstructive jaundice caused by a periampullary duodenal diverticulum (of the second part of the duodenum) compressing the intrapancreatic part of the common bile duct with resultant upstream dilatation of the extra- and intrahepatic bile ducts. Clinical presenta...
Article

Duodenal diverticula

Duodenal diverticula are outpouchings from the duodenal wall (intraluminal diverticulum discussed separately). They may result from mucosal prolapse or the prolapse of the entire duodenal wall and can be found at any point in the duodenum although are by far most commonly located along the media...
Article

Barium sulfate

Barium sulfate (BaSO4), often just called barium in radiology parlance, is a salt of barium, a metallic chemical element with atomic number 56. Barium is considered one of the heavy metals. Unlike barium and many of its other salts, barium sulfate is insoluble in water and therefore very little ...
Article

Acute peripancreatic fluid collection

Acute peripancreatic fluid collections (APFC) are an early complication of acute pancreatitis that usually develop in the first four weeks. After four weeks, the term pseudocysts is used. The absence of necrosis differentiates APFCs from acute necrotic collections (ANC), that is, APFCs occur in ...
Article

Recreational drug use (radiological manifestations)

Radiological manifestations of recreational drug use are not infrequently seen as the use of recreational drugs is widespread. Epidemiology Interestingly, recent reports have suggested a decreasing incidence of reported drug use in the general population over the past decade, but it remains th...
Article

Pancreatic atrophy

Pancreatic atrophy is non-specific and is common in elderly patients, although in younger patients it can be a hallmark of pathology. Most commonly it is associated with aging, obesity and end-stage chronic pancreatitis.  It occurs principally with fatty replacement of the pancreas (pancreatic ...
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Gut fistulation

A gastrointestinal fistula is an abnormal connection between the gut and another epithelial / endothealial - lined surface, such as another organ system, the skin surface, or elsewhere along the gastrointestinal tract. Some authors exclude fistulas involving the large bowel and oesophagus when c...
Article

Abscess

Abscesses are focal confined collections of suppurative inflammatory material and can be thought of as having three components 1: a central core consisting of necrotic inflammatory cells and local tissue peripheral halo of viable neutrophils surrounded by a 'capsule' with dilated blood vessel...
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Rigler sign

The Rigler sign, also known as the double wall sign, is seen on a radiograph of the abdomen when the air is present on both sides of the intestine, i.e. when there is air on both the luminal and peritoneal side of the bowel wall. Pneumoperitoneum may be a result of perforation or, from recent i...
Article

Meconium peritonitis

Meconium peritonitis refers to a sterile chemical peritonitis due to intra-uterine bowel perforation and spillage of fetal meconium into the fetal peritoneal cavity. It is a common cause of peritoneal calcification.  Epidemiology The estimated prevalence is at ~1 in 35,000. Pathology The aet...
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Pneumoperitoneum

Pneumoperitoneum describes gas within the peritoneal cavity, and is often the harbinger of a critical illness. There are numerous causes and several mimics (see article: pseudopneumoperitoneum). Pathology The most common cause of pneumoperitoneum is from the disruption of the wall of a hollow ...
Article

Portal venous gas

Portal venous gas is the accumulation of gas in the portal vein and its branches. It needs to be distinguished from pneumobilia, although this is usually not too problematic, when associated findings are taken into account along with the pattern of gas (i.e. peripheral in portal venous gas, cent...
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Intramural bowel gas

Intramural bowel gas, also known as pneumatosis intestinalis, refers to the clinical or radiologically finding of gas within the wall of the bowel. Terminology There are different terminologies in the medical literature, such as pneumatosis intestinalis, pneumatosis coli, and pneumatosis cysto...
Article

Small bowel ischaemia

Small bowel or mesenteric ischaemia may be a life-threatening condition, arising from any one of numerous causes of disturbance of the normal blood flow through the small bowel wall.  Pathology It can be divided into acute and chronic forms, with the main underlying aetiologies (each discussed...
Article

Intra-abdominal calcification (neonatal)

Intra-abdominal calcification in a neonate can be caused by a number of pathologies that cause calcification within the peritoneal space or within organs. Pathology Aetiology Meconium peritonitis The commonest cause is meconium peritonitis which is the result of aseptic peritonitis secondary...
Article

Duodenum

The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine and is the continuation of the stomach. Gross anatomy The duodenum is a 20-30 cm C-shaped hollow viscus predominantly on the right hand side of the vertebral column. It lies at the level of L1-3 and the convexity of the duodenum usually enc...
Article

Small bowel obstruction

Small bowel obstruction (SBO) accounts for 80% of all mechanical intestinal obstruction with the remaining 20% result from large bowel obstruction. It has a mortality rate of ~5%. Clinical presentation Classical presentation is cramping abdominal pain and abdominal distension with nausea and v...
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Crohn disease

Crohn disease is an idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) characterised by widespread gastrointestinal tract involvement typically with skip lesions. It is also known as regional enteritis, and frequently there is systemic involvement. Epidemiology The diagnosis is typically made between...
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Diaphragm

The diaphragm is the dome-shaped muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity, enclosing the inferior thoracic aperture. Gross anatomy The muscular fibres of the diaphragm originate around the circumference of the inferior thorax and converge to a common insertion point ...
Article

Internal oblique muscle

The internal oblique muscle (IOM) is one of the muscles that form the anterior abdominal wall. Inferiorly, it contributes towards the formation of the inguinal ligament. Summary origin: originates along the whole length of the lumbar fascia, from the anterior two-thirds of the iliac crest and ...
Article

Aortoenteric fistula

Aortoenteric fistula is an uncommon catastrophic cause of gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Aortic fistulas can be primary (associated with complicated abdominal aortic aneurysm) or secondary (associated with graft repair). Epidemiology The annual incidence of primary aortoenteric fistulas is thou...
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Giant colonic diverticulum

A giant colonic diverticulum is a rare form of presentation of colonic diverticulosis and is characterised by a large diverticular mass, usually filled with stool and gas, that communicates with the colonic lumen.   Clinical presentation The most common presentation is abdominal pain. Other pr...
Article

Mesentery

A mesentery is a double layer of peritoneum that encloses the intestines and attaches them to the posterior abdominal wall. The term was originally only used to refer to the double layer of peritoneum that suspends the jejunum and ileum, but its meaning has been widened. Mesenteries include: s...
Article

Pneumatosis intestinalis (mnemonic)

A helpful mnemonic for remembering the causes of pneumatosis intestinalis is: ChIPS Mnemonic C: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease I:  ischaemia P: pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis S: scleroderma/steroids
Article

Appendix

The appendix or vermiform appendix is a blind muscular tube that arises from the caecum, which is the first part of the large bowel. Gross anatomy The appendix arises from the posteromedial surface of the caecum, approximately 2-3 cm inferiorly to the ileocaecal valve, where the taena coli con...
Article

Liver

The liver is the largest abdominal organ that plays a major role in metabolism and has a number of functions, including glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells, plasma protein synthesis, hormone production, and detoxification. It is one of very few organs that has the ability to regen...
Article

Gastrointestinal stromal tumour

Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumours of the gastrointestinal tract. They account for ~5% of all sarcomas. They respond remarkably well to chemotherapy.  Terminology Previously these tumours have been variably referred to as leiomyomas, leiomyosarcomas...
Article

Superior mesenteric artery syndrome

Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome, also known as Wilkie syndrome, is a rare acquired vascular compression disorder in which acute angulation of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) results in compression of the third part of the duodenum leading to obstruction. It should not be confused wit...
Article

Appendiceal mucocele

Appendiceal mucoceles occur when there is an abnormal accumulation of mucin causing abnormal distention of the appendix. They are due to either nonneoplastic process, such as luminal obstruction, or mucin-secreting epithelial tumours. Epidemiology The reported prevalence at appendectomy is 0.2...
Article

Gastrointestinal MRI contrast agents

Gastrointestinal MRI contrast agents are varied and can be either positive or negative agents. Acceptance of the use of MRI in abdominal imaging has been limited in part by difficulty in distinguishing bowel from intra-abdominal masses and normal organs. The use of enteric contrast agents can ai...
Article

Barium swallow

Barium swallow is a dedicated test of the pharynx, oesophagus, and proximal stomach, and may be performed as a single or double contrast study. The study is often "modified" to suit the history and symptoms of the individual patient, but it is often useful to evaluate the entire pathway from the...
Article

Surgical haemostatic material

Surgical haemostatic material is used to control bleeding intraoperatively and is hence frequently voluntarily left in the operative bed, not to be confused with a gossypiboma which is foreign material left by mistake. It can mimic an abscess on imaging studies. Various types are available, the ...
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Ascites

Ascites is defined as an abnormal amount of intraperitoneal fluid. Clinical presentation Patients with a large volume of ascites can present with abdominal distension (which may be painful), nausea, vomiting, dyspnoea and peripheral oedema 7, 9. Pathology Ascitic fluid is traditionally chara...
Article

Inframesocolic space

The inframesocolic space is the intraperitoneal space below the root of the transverse mesocolon. The supramesocolic space lies above the transverse mesocolon's root. Gross anatomy The compartment can be divided into two unequal spaces posteriorly by the mesentery of the small bowel as it runs...
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Stump appendicitis

Stump appendicitis refers to inflammation of the residual appendiceal tissue post appendectomy. Partial removal of appendix with a residual stump, allows for a chance of recurrent appendicitis. Chances of a partial removal is found to be higher in cases where there is a wrong identification of ...
Article

Lipoma

Lipomas are benign tumours composed of mature adipocytes. They are the most common soft tissue tumour, seen in ~2% of the population.  Epidemiology Patients typically present in adulthood (5th-7th decades). Clinical presentation Typically lipomas are subcutaneous in location and present in a...
Article

Bouveret syndrome

Bouveret syndrome refers to a gastric outlet obstruction secondary to impaction of a gallstone in the pylorus or proximal duodenum. Thus, it can be considered a very proximal form of gallstone ileus.  Clinical presentation Bouveret syndrome occurs most commonly in elderly women. The presenting...
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Bowel and mesenteric trauma

Bowel and mesenteric trauma can result from blunt force, penetrating and iatrogenic trauma. Epidemiology The bowel and mesentery are injured in ~2.5% (range 0.3-5%) of blunt force abdominal trauma 1,3,5,8. However not surprisingly, bowel and mesenteric injuries are more frequent after penetrat...
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Accessory parotid glands

Accessory parotid glands are a normal variant and represent ectopic salivary tissue separate from, but usually in close proximity to, the main parotid glands 1. Occasionally the accessory tissue is contiguous with the main glands. Epidemiology Accessory parotid glands are commonly picked up in...
Article

Antral nipple sign

The antral nipple sign refers to redundant pyloric mucosa protruding into the gastric antrum and is seen in pyloric stenosis. See also cervix sign of pyloric stenosis target sign of pyloric stenosis shoulder sign of pyloric stenosis
Article

Annular pancreas

Annular pancreas is a morphological anomaly which can cause duodenal obstruction. This condition is important to recognise, as radiologists are frequently the first to make the diagnosis. Epidemiology The incidence is probably 1 in 250, however incidence is not accurately reported 1. It is as ...
Article

Isolated free fluid in trauma

Isolated free fluid in trauma may or may not represent a significant injury, and this creates a diagnostic dilemma in determining appropriate treatment for these patients.  Epidemiology The presence of isolated free fluid in trauma occurs in 3-5% of blunt trauma patients 1-4. Pathology The c...
Article

Inferior mesenteric artery

The inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) is an anterior branch of the abdominal aorta that supplies the hindgut. It is the smallest of the three anterior branches of the abdominal aorta. Gross anatomy Location within the mesentery of the hindgut Origin unpaired vessel from the anterior aspect o...
Article

Superior mesenteric artery

The superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is one of the three non-paired arteries that provide blood to the midgut and other abdominal viscera. Gross anatomy Origin Single vessel arising anteriorly from the abdominal aorta at the level of L1. Course Courses anteroinferiorly, behind the neck of p...
Article

Coeliac artery

Coeliac artery (also known as the coeliac axis or trunk) is a major visceral artery in the abdominal cavity.  Gross anatomy Origin Arises anteriorly from abdominal aorta at the T12 level, behind the median arcuate ligament, just as the aorta enters the abdomen.  Course It is typically a sho...
Article

Splenic infarction

Splenic infarction is a result of ischaemia to the spleen, and in many cases requires no treatment. However, identification of the cause of infarction is essential.   Epidemiology Splenic infarcts can occur due to a number processes, involving either arterial supply, the spleen itself and the ...
Article

Body packing

Body packing refers to the internal concealment of drugs within the gastrointestinal tract or other orifices. People who do this may be called body packers, (drug) mules, stuffers, couriers or swallowers. Drugs may be concealed within condoms, foil, latex or cellophane.  Epidemiology There is ...
Article

Small bowel follow through

Small bowel follow through (SBFT) is a fluoroscopic technique designed to obtain high resolution images of the small bowel. The function of the small bowel can also be evaluated. Indications The small bowel follow through can be used for evaluation of small bowel abnormalities, including: str...
Article

Peritoneal spaces

Peritoneal spaces are separate compartments within the peritoneal cavity. These spaces are separated or compartmentalized by various peritoneal ligaments and their attachments.  The peritoneal spaces are important in the peritoneal diseases, ascites, intraperitoneal collections or peritoneal me...
Article

Enterovirus 71

Enterovirus 71 is one of the viruses that causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease in children. It is an enterovirus, one of the picornaviruses. Infection with enterovirus 71 predominantly results in a vesicular rash of the hands and feet that follows a prodrome of symptoms including fever, vomiting ...
Article

Bariatric intragastric balloon therapy

Bariatric intragastric balloon therapy is a relatively new form of bariatric surgery, which involves a balloon being endoscopically placed and inflated inside the lumen of the stomach. The balloon resides in the stomach and the mechanism of action is presumably due to stretching the stomach, ind...
Article

Midgut volvulus

Midgut volvulus is a complication of malrotated bowel and results in a proximal bowel obstruction and ischaemia. Epidemiology A midgut volvulus of malrotated bowel can potentially occur at any age but in approximately 75% of cases is within a month of birth 4,6, most within the first week 3, a...
Article

Computed tomographic (CT) colonography

Computed tomographic (CT) colonography, also called CTC, virtual colonoscopy (VC) or CT pneumocolon, is a powerful minimally invasive technique for colorectal cancer screening. Indications screening test for colorectal carcinoma colon evaluation after incomplete or unsuccessful conventional c...
Article

Skin changes of mercury poisoning (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the skin changes associated with mercury poisoning is: 5 Ps Mnemonic P: pink P: puffy P: painful P: paraesthesia P: peeling
Article

Meckel diverticulum

Meckel diverticulum is a congenital intestinal diverticulum due to fibrous degeneration of the umbilical end of the omphalomesenteric (vitelline) duct that occurs around the distal ileum. It is considered the most common structural congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract. Epidemiology ...
Article

RASopathies

RASopathies are a class of developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in genes that encode for components or regulators of the Ras/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Epidemiology As a group, RASopathies represent one of the most common malformation syndromes, with an in...
Article

Rule of 2s in Meckel diverticulum

The rule of 2s is a useful mnemonic for Meckel diverticulum. Meckel diverticula: occur in 2% of the population are 2 inches (5cm) long are 2 feet (60cm) from the ileocaecal valve 2/3rds have ectopic mucosa 2 types of ectopic tissue are commonly present (mostly gastric and pancreatic)  and...
Article

Paralytic ileus (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the common causes of paralytic ileus is: 5 Ps Mnemonic P: postoperative P: peritonitis P: potassium: low (also disturbances of other electrolytes) P: pelvic and spinal fractures P: parturition
Article

Marginal artery of Drummond and arc of Riolan (mnemonic)

Remembering the colon vascular supply can be confusing because of inconstant collateral vascularisation, therefore mnemonics can be helpful. One way to remember the location of the marginal artery of Drummond is to remember that it runs distally to the root of the mesentery (near the colon). I...
Article

Generalised colitis (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the causes of generalised colitis is: I3NR Mnemonic I: infectious colitis e.g. E. coli, cytomegalovirus I: inflammatory, e.g. pseudomembranous colitis, Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis I: ischaemic colitis N: neoplastic, e.g. lymphoma R: radiation colitis
Article

Adrenal metastases

Adrenal metastases are the most common malignant lesions involving the adrenal gland. Metastases are usually bilateral but may also be unilateral. Unilateral involvement is more prevalent on the left side (ratio of 1.5:1). Epidemiology They are present at autopsy in up to 27% of patients with ...
Article

Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (ultrasound measurements mnemonic)

Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis can be characterised in ultrasound studies by the measurements of the hypertrophic muscle. Although the criteria can vary from publication to publication, an easy way to keep in mind those values is remembering the first digits of the number "pi", also represented b...
Article

Congenital portosystemic shunt

​Congenital portosystemic shunts are rare anatomical abnormalities linked to abnormal embryological venous development. They can be extrahepatic or intrahepatic. In either case, the underlying abnormality is shunting of blood from the portal venous system to the systemic venous system thus avoid...

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