Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

952 results found
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Veiled right kidney sign

The veiled right kidney sign is a sonographic sign described in pneumoretroperitoneum, most commonly due to duodenal perforation. It refers to the appearance of the right kidney on transabdominal ultrasound 1-4. On ultrasound, there is difficulty in obtaining images of the right kidney due to i...
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Valentino syndrome

Valentino syndrome, or Valentino appendix, refers to a clinical syndrome of right lower quadrant or right iliac fossa pain secondary to a perforated peptic ulcer. It is an important differential diagnosis for acute appendicitis. Epidemiology Although thought to be a very rare manifestation of ...
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Pneumoretroperitoneum

Pneumoretroperitoneum is by definition presence of gas within the retroperitoneal space. Pathology Pneumoretroperitoneum is always abnormal and has a relatively small differential: perforated retroperitoneal hollow viscus duodenum peptic ulcer disease blunt or penetrating abdominal trauma...
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Inguinal canal

The inguinal canal is a passage in the anterior abdominal wall that transmits structures from the pelvis to the perineum formed by the fetal migration of the gonad from the abdomen into the labioscrotal folds. Gross anatomy The inguinal canal has an oblique course, is 4 cm in length and has tw...
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Peptic ulcer disease

Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) encompasses a number of entities, united by the presence of mucosal ulceration secondary to the effects of gastric acid. Since the recognition of Helicobacter pylori as a common causative agent, and the development of powerful anti-acid medications, peptic ulcer diseas...
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Choi response criteria

The use of tumour size alone has certain pitfalls and limitations that have been observed in various clinical trials, especially those in which targeted therapies are used for specific tumours like gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST). The Choi response criteria for GIST proposed that tumour ...
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IgG4-related disease

IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic disease that is characterised by extensive IgG4-positive plasma cells and T-lymphocyte infiltration of various organs. Terminology This condition has been known by many other names in the past, such as IgG4-related sclerosing disease, IgG4-related s...
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Gastrointestinal stromal tumour

Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumours of the gastrointestinal tract. They account for ~5% of all sarcomas. They respond remarkably well to chemotherapy.  Terminology Previously these tumours have been variably referred to as leiomyomas, leiomyosarcomas...
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Polo mint sign (venous thrombosis)

The Polo Mint sign is a description given to a venous thrombosis on contrast enhanced CT imaging.  When viewed in the axial plane, a thin rim of contrast persists around a central filling defect due to thrombus. This gives an appearance like that of the popular mint sweet, the Polo, also referre...
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Solid and hollow abdominal viscera

The solid abdominal viscera is a collective term for those internal organs of the upper abdomen that are primarily solid in nature, namely the liver, pancreas, spleen, adrenals, and kidneys. It is used in contradistinction to the hollow abdominal viscera, which includes, the stomach, small bowel...
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Fleischner sign (disambiguation)

Fleischner sign can refer to two distinctly separate signs: Fleischner sign (enlarged pulmonary artery) Fleischner sign (tuberculosis of ileocaecal junction)
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Fleischner sign (tuberculosis of ileocaecal junction)

The Fleischner sign refers to a widely gaping, thickened, patulous ileocaecal valve and a narrowed, ulcerated terminal ileum associated with tuberculous involvement of the ileocaecum. See also gastrointestinal tuberculosis Stierlin sign not to be confused with the Fleischner sign (enlarged p...
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Hinchey classification of acute diverticulitis

E J Hinchey et al. 3 proposed a classification for acute diverticulitis, that has been variously adapted, and is useful not only in academia but also in outlining successive stages of severity. Classification stage 1a: phlegmon stage 1b: diverticulitis with pericolic or mesenteric abscess st...
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Crohn disease

Crohn disease is an idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) characterised by widespread gastrointestinal tract involvement typically with skip lesions. It is also known as regional enteritis, and frequently there is systemic involvement. Epidemiology The diagnosis is typically made between...
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Small bowel faeces sign

The small bowel faeces sign can be observed on abdominal CT scans. The sign has been described as a finding specific for small bowel obstruction or another severe small bowel abnormality (e.g. metabolic or infectious disease). While the reported prevalence of the sign in small bowel obstruction ...
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Bezoar

Bezoars are accumulations of indigestible contents within the gastrointestinal tract 2.  They are known to cause small bowel obstruction and sometimes CT may demonstrate the bezoar as a mass in the obstructed segment of bowel. The bezoar may be outlined by fluid in the proximally dilated small ...
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Chilaiditi syndrome

Chilaiditi syndrome is the anterior interposition of the colon to the liver reaching the under-surface of the right hemidiaphragm with associated upper abdominal pain; it is one of the causes of pseudopneumoperitoneum. Colonic gas in this position may be misinterpreted as true pneumoperitoneum ...
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Anal verge

The anal verge is part of the anal region and consists of a band of squamous epithelial tissue which lacks hair follicles and extends from the inter-sphincteric groove to the perianal skin. 
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Anal canal

The anal canal is the terminal part of the gastrointestinal tract. Anatomically, the anal canal is referred to as the terminal alimentary tract between the dentate line and anal verge. However, histologically it extends more proximally and includes the columns of Morgagni and anal sinuses. Surgi...
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Atrial-oesophageal fistula

Atrio-oesophageal fistulas are rare pathological connections between the left atrium and the oesophagus.  Clinical presentation The presentation is non-specific. Patients may complain of fever, malaise, and/or dysphagia, or present with neurological symptoms 3.  Pathology The chief cause of ...
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Meckel diverticulum

Meckel diverticulum is a congenital intestinal diverticulum due to fibrous degeneration of the umbilical end of the omphalomesenteric (vitelline) duct that occurs around the distal ileum. It is considered the most common structural congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract. Epidemiology ...
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Periampullary tumours

Periampullary tumours are those that arise within 2 cm of the ampulla of Vater in the duodenum. Pathology Tumours that fall under this group include four main types of tumours 1,4: pancreatic head/uncinate process tumours: includes pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma involving head and uncinate ...
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Scleroderma

Scleroderma, also known as systemic sclerosis, is a multisystem autoimmune connective tissue disorder. As such, it affects many separate organ systems, which are discussed separately: musculoskeletal manifestations of scleroderma pulmonary manifestations of scleroderma cardiac manifestations ...
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Superior mesenteric artery syndrome

Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome, also known as Wilkie syndrome, is a rare acquired vascular compression disorder in which acute angulation of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) results in compression of the third part of the duodenum leading to obstruction. It should not be confused wit...
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Shock bowel

Shock bowel is the appearance of the bowel in a state of hypotension.  It is usually seen as part of the CT hypoperfusion complex. Radiographic features CT thickened bowel loops (>3 mm) with enhancing walls (the reason the condition was previously known as "shock bowel") on non-contrasted im...
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CT hypotension complex

CT hypotension complex refers to the predominantly abdominal imaging features that occur in the context of profound hypotension. Multiple abdominal organs can display atypical appearances not related to the initial trauma but reflect alterations in perfusion secondary to hypovolemia which affect...
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Pancreas

The pancreas is a retroperitoneal organ that has both endocrine and exocrine functions: it is involved in the production of hormones (insulin, glucagon and somatostatin), and also involved in digestion by its production and secretion of pancreatic juice. Gross anatomy The pancreas can be divid...
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Peribiliary cyst

Peribiliary cysts occur in the setting of chronic liver disease where it is a rare, benign and often asymptomatic disorder. It occurs when there is cyst formation around the intrahepatic biliary ductules primarily in a hilar distribution 1. Unlike choledochal cysts (for example in Caroli disease...
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Revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis (2012)

The Revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis (2012) is an international multidisciplinary classification of the severity of acute pancreatitis, updating the 1991 Atlanta classification. This has been further revised in 2016 6. The worldwide consensus aims for an internationally agre...
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Abdominal radiology: imaging (curriculum)

Imaging in general surgery is vital to ensure timely and accurate diagnosis for patients.  You need to know the gamut of tests that are available when to use the correct test, some important findings that commonly occur and (for some investigations) how to approach looking at the images that ar...
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Abdominal radiology for students (curriculum)

Abdominal radiology curriculum for medical students is broadly split into content that refers to imaging (the test and findings) and conditions that are considered key for this stage of training. Some non-abdominal conditions are included in this portion of the curriculum, including breast dise...
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Pseudomyxoma peritonei

Pseudomyxoma peritonei refers to the intraperitoneal accumulation of a gelatinous ascites secondary to rupture of a mucinous tumour. The most common cause is a ruptured mucinous tumour of the appendix/appendiceal mucocoele 10.   Occasionally, mucinous tumours of the colon, rectum, stomach, panc...
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Pneumoperitoneum (summary)

Pneumoperitoneum describes gas within the peritoneal cavity and is often the harbinger of a critical illness, often perforation of a hollow viscus. Pneumoperitoneum is distinct from pneumoretroperitoneum (much rarer) and may be mimicked by other causes (pseudopneumoperitoneum). Reference articl...
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Magenstrasse

The term magenstrasse refers to a tubular portion of the stomach adjacent to the lesser curve of the stomach. It is a favoured route by food, fluids and drugs as they flow from the cardia/fundus to the gastric outlet 1. Magenstrasse is an old German anatomical term that has come back into commo...
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Peritoneal CSF pseudocyst

A peritoneal CSF pseudocyst is a rare complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheter placement. The time from the last shunting procedure to the development of an abdominal pseudocyst ranges from 3 weeks to 5 years.  Pathology The wall is composed of fibrous tissue without an epithelial l...
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Gossypiboma

A gossypiboma, also called textiloma or cottonoid, refers to a foreign object, such as a mass of cotton matrix or a sponge, that is left behind in a body cavity during an operation. It is an uncommon surgical complication. The manifestations and complications of gossypibomas are so variable tha...
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Nasogastric tube positioning

Assessment of nasogastric (NG) tube positioning is a key competency of all doctors as unidentified malpositioning may have dire consequences, including death. The ideal position should be in the sub-diaphragmatic position in the stomach - identified on a plain chest radiograph as overlying the ...
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Buried bumper syndrome

Buried bumper syndrome (BBS) is a rare but important complication in patients with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube, occurring by migration of the internal bumper along its track. The tube may get lodged anywhere between the gastric wall and the skin and lead to life-threatening co...
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Adrenal washout

Adrenal washout can be calculated using the density value of an adrenal mass on non-enhanced, portal venous phase and 15 minutes delayed CT-scans (density measured in Hounsfield units (HU)). It is primarily used to diagnose adrenal adenoma. absolute washout [(HUportal venous phase) - (HUdelaye...
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PET-CT indications

PET-CT is a combination of cross-sectional anatomic information provided by CT and the metabolic information provided by positron emission tomography (PET). PET is most commonly performed with 2-[F-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). Fluorine-18 (F-18) is an unstable radioisotope and has a half-...
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Gaucher disease

Gaucher disease (GD) is the most common lysosomal storage disease in humans. It is an autosomal recessive, multisystem disease arising from a deficiency of glucocerebrosidase or beta-glucosidase activity, resulting in accumulation of a glycolipid (glucocerebroside) within the lysosomes of macrop...
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Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms or tumours (IPMNs or IMPTs) are cystic tumours of the pancreas. Epidemiology These tumours are most frequently identified in older patients (50-60 years of age) 6. Main duct type (see below) appears to present a decade or so earlier on average than bran...
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Small bowel lymphoma

Small bowel lymphoma is the most common small bowel malignancy, accounting accounts for ~25% of all primary small bowel malignancies and ~40% of all primary gastrointestinal lymphomas. Epidemiology Small bowel lymphoma is most commonly secondary extranodal involvement in widespread systemic ly...
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Kommerell diverticulum

Kommerell diverticula occur in some anomalies of the aortic arch system. It usually refers to the bulbous configuration of the origin of an aberrant left subclavian artery in the setting of a right-sided aortic arch. However, it was originally described as a diverticular outpouching at the origi...
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Perirenal fascia

The perirenal fascia is a dense, elastic connective tissue sheath that envelops each kidney and adrenal gland together with a layer of surrounding perirenal fat forming the perirenal space. It is a multi-laminated structure which is fused posteromedially with the muscular fasciae of the psoas a...
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Reverse figure 3 sign

The reverse figure 3 sign (also known as the E sign) is seen on barium swallows in patients with a coarctation of the aorta and is the medial equivalent of the figure 3 sign seen on plain chest radiographs. It is formed by prestenotic dilatation of the ascending aorta, indentation of the coarcta...
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Krenning score of neuroendocrine tumour uptake

The Krenning score is a proposed semi-quantitative method of assessing the degree of tracer uptake on octreotide scintigraphy. Parameters Initially designed for assessment of 111In-DTPA on planar imaging, the Krenning score is applicable to SPECT or SPECT/CT as well as various radiopharmaceuti...
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Perigastric appendagitis

Perigastric appendgitis is a rare inflammatory/ischemic process involving the perigastric ligaments (gastrohepatic, gastrospleic and falciform ligaments). Epiploic appendagitis, greater omental infarction, and perigastric appendgitis have similar mechanisms, clinical presentations, and radiolog...
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Mallory-Weiss tear

Mallory-Weiss tears occur due to violent projection of gastric contents against the lower oesophagus, which results in mucosal and submucosal tear with involvement of the venous plexus.  Clinical presentation Patients present with massive painless haematemesis. Pathology Tears most commonly ...
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Pancreatic ducts

The pancreatic ductal embryology is moderately complicated, leading to a number of anatomical variants of the pancreatic ducts, many of which are clinically significant. The normal arrangement is for the entire pancreas to be drained via a single duct, to the ampulla of Vater through the sphinc...
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Haemosuccus pancreaticus

Haemosuccus pancreaticus, also known as pseudohaemobilia or haemoductal pancreatitis, is defined as upper gastrointestinal tract haemorrhage originating from the pancreatic duct into the duodenum via the ampulla of Vater, or major pancreatic papilla. Epidemiology male:female ratio is 7:1 high...
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Abdominal radiology: presentations (curriculum)

Abdominal radiology presentations are a relatively distinct group of presentations that precipitate assessment medical and surgical teams.
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Abdominal radiology: conditions (curriculum)

Abdominal radiology conditions are a broad group of heterogeneous conditions that are split into: true pathology (e.g. colonic carcinoma) the underlying process (e.g. large bowel obstruction) It is important to have an overview of these conditions and understand what imaging is useful in thei...
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Large bowel obstruction (summary)

Large bowel obstruction (LBO) occurs when there is mechanical obstruction of the large bowel and is often impressive on imaging on account of the ability of the large bowel to massively distend. This condition requires prompt diagnosis and treatment.  Reference article This is a summary articl...
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Acute pancreatitis

Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammation of the pancreas and is a potentially life-threatening condition. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is made by fulfilling two of the following three criteria 8: acute onset of persistent, severe epigastric pain (i.e. pain consistent with acute pancr...
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Large bowel obstruction

Large bowel obstruction (LBO) are often impressive on imaging, on account of the ability of the large bowel to massively distend. This condition requires prompt diagnosis and treatment.  Epidemiology Large bowel obstructions are far less common than small bowel obstructions, accounting for onl...
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Abdominal x-ray - an approach (summary)

Abdominal radiographs can be challenging examinations to look at. It is always best to approach radiographs in a systematic way. Bowel gas pattern Gas within the bowel forms a natural contrast with surrounding tissues since it has a very low density. Bowel can only be seen if it contains air/g...
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Bowel obstruction

Bowel obstructions are common and account for 20% of admissions with "surgical abdomens". Radiology is important in confirming the diagnosis and identifying the underlying cause. Bowel obstructions are usually divided according to where the obstruction occurs, and since imaging appearances, und...
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Intussusception

Intussusception occurs when one segment of bowel is pulled into itself or a neighbouring loop of bowel by peristalsis. It is also known as bowel telescoping into itself. It is an important cause of an acute abdomen in children and merits timely ultrasound examination and reduction to preclude s...
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Ascites

Ascites is defined as an abnormal amount of intraperitoneal fluid. Clinical presentation Patients with a large volume of ascites can present with abdominal distension (which may be painful), nausea, vomiting, dyspnoea and peripheral oedema 7, 9. Pathology Ascitic fluid is traditionally chara...
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Omental cake

Omental cake refers to infiltration of the omental fat by material of soft-tissue density. The appearances refer to the contiguous omental mass simulating the top of a cake. Masses on the peritoneal surfaces and malignant ascites may also be present.  Pathology The most common cause is metasta...
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Normal gastrointestinal tract imaging examples

Plain radiograph example 1: abdominal film example 2: erect and supine example 3, example 4: paediatric example 5: young adult male Barium studies example 1, example 2, example 3: barium swallow example 1: upper GI series example 1: barium follow through example 1: barium enema Ultraso...
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Sclerosing mesenteritis

Sclerosing mesenteritis (or mesenteric panniculitis) is an uncommon idiopathic disorder characterised by chronic non-specific inflammation involving the adipose tissue of the bowel mesentery. Epidemiology   Typically this condition afflicts adults in their sixties with mild male predilection, ...
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VIPoma

VIPomas are a very rare type of pancreatic endocrine tumour that secrete, and get their name from, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). The clinical syndrome resulting from these tumours is commonly known as WDHA syndrome, as an acronym of the cardinal symptoms of watery diarrhoea, hypokalaemia,...
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Epiploic appendagitis

Epiploic appendagitis is a rare self limiting inflammatory/ischaemic process involving an appendix epiploica of the colon, and may either be primary or secondary to adjacent pathology. This article pertains to primary (spontaneous) epiploic appendagitis. The term along with omental infarction is...
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Mesorectal fascia

The mesorectal fascia is a layer of connective tissue enclosing the peri-rectal fat that surrounds the rectum. It is an important anatomical structure in rectal cancer staging. Summary location: envelopes the peri-rectal fat which surrounds the rectum within the pelvis boundaries: extends fro...
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Parasympathetic pelvic splanchnic nerves

The pelvic splanchnic nerves also known as nervi erigentes are preganglionic (presynaptic) parasympathetic nerve fibres that arise from S2, S3 and S4 nerve roots of the sacral plexus. These nerves form the parasympathetic portion of the autonomic nervous system in the pelvis.   Gross anatomy O...
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Dysphagia megalatriensis

Dysphagia megalatriensis, also known as cardiovascular dysphagia or cardiac dysphagia, is an impairment of swallowing due to oesophageal compression from a dilated left atrium.  Clinical presentation Presentation is generally with mild dysphagia, although a minority of patients will have dysph...
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Light bulb sign (phaeochromocytoma)

The light bulb sign of an adrenal phaeochromocytoma is MRI feature of this tumour. This refers to marked hyperintensity seen on T2 weighted sequences however this finding is neither sensitive nor specific and phaeochromocytomas are more often heterogeneous with intermediate or high T2 signal int...
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Lead pipe sign (colon)

The lead pipe appearance of colon is the classical barium enema finding in chronic ulcerative colitis. There is complete loss of haustral markings in the diseased section of colon, and the organ appears smooth-walled and cylindrical. 
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Lucent liver sign

The lucent liver sign is represented by a reduction of hepatic radiodensity on supine radiograph when there is a collection of free intraperitoneal gas located anterior to the liver.
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Low attenuation lymphadenopathy

Low attenuation lymphadenopathy suggests underlying necrosis and can be seen in: metastatic carcinoma (or lymphoma) infections (tuberculous or fungal) Whipple disease coeliac sprue See also lymphadenopathy low attenuation lymphadenopathy high attenuation lymphadenopathy
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Lateral crescent sign (inguinal hernia)

The lateral crescent sign is a useful diagnostic sign of a direct inguinal hernia on CT scan, the hernia causing compression and lateral displacement of the inguinal canal contents (ductus deferens, testicular vessels, fat, etc.) to form a semicircle of tissue that resembles a moon crescent seen...
Article

Haemangiopericytoma of the spleen

Haemangiopericytomas of the spleen are very rare vascular neoplasma with only a few case reports available at the time of writing. Clinical presentation Splenic haemangiopericytomas are typically asymptomatic or can result in splenomegaly. Pathology These are soft tissue vascular neoplasms a...
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Body packing

Body packing refers to the internal concealment of drugs within the gastrointestinal tract or other orifices. People who do this may be called body packers, (drug) mules, stuffers, couriers or swallowers. Drugs may be concealed within condoms, foil, latex or cellophane.  Epidemiology There is ...
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Coeliac artery compression syndrome

Coeliac artery compression syndrome is also known as coeliac axis syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome and Dunbar syndrome. It is characterised by upper abdominal angina secondary to compression of the coeliac trunk by the diaphragmatic crurae. Pathology The median arcuate ligament is th...
Article

Ileal atresia

Ileal atresia is a congenital abnormality where there is significant stenosis or complete absence of a portion of the ileum. There is an increased incidence in those with chromosomal abnormalities. This article will focus on ileal atresia alone but bear in mind that some cases correspond to jej...
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Diffuse peritoneal leiomyomatosis

Diffuse/disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis (DPL), also known as leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata, is an exceedingly rare benign disorder characterised by multiple vascular leiomyomas growing along the submesothelial tissues of the abdominopelvic peritoneum. Epidemiology DPL is usual...
Article

Haggitt level

The Haggitt level is a histopathological term used for describing the degree of infiltration from a malignant polypoidal lesion. Levels of invasion 0: carcinoma in situ or intramucosal carcinoma 1: invasion of the submucosa, but limited to the head of the polyp 2: invasion extending into the...
Article

Gastric antral vascular ectasia

Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE), also known as watermelon stomach, is a rare condition affecting the stomach. It is one of the diagnoses to consider in older patients with severe anaemia and occult or profuse gastrointestinal bleeding (especially in those with cardiac, liver, or renal dis...
Article

Walled-off pancreatic necrosis

Walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN) is a late complication of acute pancreatitis, although it can occur in chronic pancreatitis or as a result of pancreatic trauma. Differentiation of WOPN from pancreatic pseudocyst is essential because management differs. WOPN may need aggressive treatment to...
Article

Congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt classification

This congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt classification was proposed by Park et al. in 1990 1: type 1: single large vessel of constant diameter connecting the right portal vein to the Inferior vena cava type 2: localised, peripheral shunt with one or more communications in a single hep...
Article

Colorectal carcinoma

Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is the most common cancer of the gastrointestinal tract and the second most frequently diagnosed malignancy in adults. CT and MRI are the modalities most frequently used for staging. Surgical resection may be curative although five-year survival rate is 40-50%. Epidem...
Article

CA 19-9 elevation

CA 19-9 (carbohydrate antigen 19-9 or cancer antigen) is a serum antigen (monosialoganglioside) that has increased diagnostic use in the management of several malignancies, mainly of hepatopancreaticobiliary origin. It is non-specific, however, and can rise in both malignant and non-malignant co...
Article

Appendiceal mucocele

Appendiceal mucoceles occur when there is an abnormal accumulation of mucin causing abnormal distention of the appendix. They are due to either nonneoplastic process, such as luminal obstruction, or mucin-secreting epithelial tumours. Epidemiology The reported prevalence at appendectomy is 0.2...
Article

Pancreatic trauma injury grading

A number of pancreatic injury grading systems have been proposed. Classifications American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grade 1: haematoma with minor contusion/laceration but without duct injury grade 2: major contusion/laceration but without duct injury grade 3: distal lace...
Article

Gastrointestinal schwannoma

A gastrointestinal schwannoma is an extremely rare mesenchymal neoplasm which arises in relation to the gastrointestinal tract. Epidemiology They are reported to typically present at about the 3rd to 5th decades of life 4. Clinical presentation Patients are often asymptomatic but may occasio...
Article

Feline oesophagus

Feline oesophagus also known as oesophageal shiver, refers to the transient transverse bands seen in the mid and lower oesophagus on a double contrast barium swallow. The appearance is almost always associated with active gastro-oesophageal reflux 2,3 and is thought to be due to contraction of ...
Article

Autoimmune pancreatitis

Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a form of chronic pancreatitis associated with autoimmune manifestations on clinical, histological, and laboratory grounds 1. Distinguishing this entity from other forms of chronic pancreatitis (such as alcohol-induced) is important as steroid treatment is effec...
Article

Umbilical hernia

Umbilical hernias are the most common ventral hernia and occur in the midline. Epidemiology Ten times more common in females 2 and represent ~5% of all abdominal hernias 4. Clinical presentation Umbilical hernias present in the midline as painless or painful mass.  Pathology Umbilical hern...
Article

Kirklin complex

The Kirklin complex is a combination of the Carman meniscus sign associated with a radiolucent semicircular zone surrounding the elevated ridge of the ulcer. This complex is seen in cases of gastric adenocarcinoma on barium studies. History and etymology Byrl Raymond Kirklin, (1888-1957 2) an ...
Article

Kirklin sign

The Kirklin sign refers to a deformity of the normal gastric air bubble on an upright chest radiograph due to a mass lesion of the gastric cardia or fundus. The differential for a Kirklin sign includes gastric tumour gastric carcinoma oesophageal carcinoma gastrointestinal stromal tumour (G...
Article

Haemoperitoneum

Haemoperitoneum is the presence of blood within the peritoneal cavity. Pathology Aetiology penetrating or non-penetrating abdominal trauma (often with associated organ injury) 1 ruptured ectopic pregnancy ovarian cyst rupture aneurysm or pseudoaneurysm rupture neoplasm rupture acute haem...

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