Fibromatosis colli

Fibromatosis colli is a rare form of infantile fibromatosis that occurs within the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM).

There may be a slight male predilection. It typically presents a few weeks after birth.

Presentation is usually with torticollis and is most frequently related to birth trauma (e.g. forceps delivery) or malposition in the womb. 

The importance of fibromatosis colli, above all else, is that it must be recognised for the benign lesion that it is. It is unilateral in most cases.

Ultrasound is the imaging modality of choice. The sternocleidomastoid muscle is diffusely enlarged to assume a fusiform shape with resultant shortening, therefore the head is turned away from the affected side (the mastoid process is drawn inferiorly towards the ipsilateral head of clavicle). Echogenicity may vary. Spectral Doppler interrogation may reveal a high resistance waveform. The enlarged area often moves synchronously with the rest of the sternocleidomastoid on real-time sonography 1.

Typically shows a diffusely enlarged sternocleidomastoid that is isoattenuating to normal neighbouring musculature. Adjacent fat planes are well preserved. At times, calcification may be present 2.

It is a self-limiting condition and usually resolves within 4-8 months 3 and requires no more than physiotherapy.

For a general differential see: differential diagnosis of paediatric cervical lesions.

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Article information

rID: 1336
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Pseudotumour of infancy of the sternocleidomastoid

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