There may be a slight male predilection. It typically presents a few weeks after birth.
The importance of fibromatosis colli, above all else, is that it must be recognised for the benign lesion that it is. It is unilateral in most cases.
Ultrasound is the imaging modality of choice. The sternocleidomastoid muscle is diffusely enlarged to assume a fusiform shape with resultant shortening, therefore the head is turned away from the affected side (the mastoid process is drawn inferiorly towards the ipsilateral head of clavicle). Echogenicity may vary. Spectral Doppler interrogation may reveal a high resistance waveform. The enlarged area often moves synchronously with the rest of the sternocleidomastoid on real-time sonography 1.
Typically shows a diffusely enlarged sternocleidomastoid that is isoattenuating to normal neighbouring musculature. Adjacent fat planes are well preserved. At times, calcification may be present 2.
Treatment and prognosis
It is a self-limiting condition and usually resolves within 4-8 months 3 and requires no more than physiotherapy.
For a general differential see: differential diagnosis of paediatric cervical lesions.
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- 2. Meuwly JY, Lepori D, Theumann N et-al. Multimodality imaging evaluation of the pediatric neck: techniques and spectrum of findings. Radiographics. 25 (4): 931-48. doi:10.1148/rg.254045142 - Pubmed citation
- 3. Crawford SC, Harnsberger HR, Johnson L et-al. Fibromatosis colli of infancy: CT and sonographic findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1988;151 (6): 1183-4. AJR Am J Roentgenol (citation) - Pubmed citation
- 4. Robbin MR, Murphey MD, Temple HT et-al. Imaging of musculoskeletal fibromatosis. Radiographics. 21 (3): 585-600. Radiographics (full text) - Pubmed citation
- 5. Laffan EE, Ngan BY, Navarro OM. Pediatric soft-tissue tumors and pseudotumors: MR imaging features with pathologic correlation: part 2. Tumors of fibroblastic/myofibroblastic, so-called fibrohistiocytic, muscular, lymphomatous, neurogenic, hair matrix, and uncertain origin. Radiographics. 29 (4): e36. doi:10.1148/rg.e36 - Pubmed citation