Testicular cancer

Dr Jeremy Jones et al.

Testicular cancers are the most common neoplasm in men between the ages of 20 and 34.

Testicular cancer is uncommon, accounting for less than 1% of all internal organ malignancies 2.

The demographics of affected individuals depends on the age of the histology of the tumour. Over 90% of all tumours of the testes are primary germ cell tumours, and as such young adults are the overall most frequently involved group.

It is interesting to note that among the germ cell tumours there is also stratification according to age, with some tumours being more common in some age groups than others:

Risk factors

See: risk factors for testicular germ cell tumours

Classification
Regional lymph nodes

The following lymph node regions are considered regional:

  • interaortocaval
  • para-aortic (periaortic)
  • paracaval
  • preaortic
  • precaval
  • retroaortic
  • retrocaval

The left and right testicles have different drainage. The left testicle primarily drains through the para-aortic lymph nodes. The right testicle primary drains via the interaortocaval nodes.

Metastatic sites

Metastases from testicular tumours most commonly occur to the lymphatic system followed by lung, liver and bone, and other visceral sites.

Staging

See the individual articles.

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Article Information

rID: 9059
System: Urogenital
Section: Gamuts
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Testicular tumours
  • Testicular cancers
  • Tumours of the testis
  • Tumors of the testis
  • Testicular tumors
  • Testicular malignancy
  • Testicular malignancies
  • Testicular neoplasms
  • Testicular neoplasm

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  • Drag
    Figure 1: gross specimen of a teratoma
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    Pure yolk sac tum...
    Case 1: pure yolk sac tumour
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Left testis
    Case 2: seminoma
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    Testicular terato...
    Case 3: testicular teratoma
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    Choriocarcinoma
    Case 4: testicular choriocarcinoma
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    Fig. 1
    Case 5: testicular mixed germ cell tumour
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    Case 6: seminoma
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    Case 7: metastatic mixed germ cell tumour of testis
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    Case 8: in an undescended testicle
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