Testicular cancer

Dr Matt Adams and Dr Jeremy Jones et al.

Testicular cancers are the most common neoplasm in men between the ages of 20 and 34 years.

Testicular cancer is uncommon, accounting for less than 1% of all internal organ malignancies 2.

The demographics of affected individuals depends on the age of the histology of the tumor. Over 90% of all tumors of the testes are primary germ cell tumors, and as such young adults are the overall most frequently involved group.

It is interesting to note that among the germ cell tumors there is also stratification according to age, with some tumors being more common in some age groups than others:

See: risk factors for testicular germ cell tumors

In a recent large case-control study, the commonest symptoms associated with a diagnosis of testicular cancer were a swollen testis/scrotum and/or a lump 4

The following lymph node regions are considered regional:

  • aortocaval
  • para-aortic (periaortic)
  • paracaval
  • preaortic
  • precaval
  • retroaortic
  • retrocaval

The left and right testicles have differing lymphatic drainage. The left testicle primarily drains through the para-aortic lymph nodes. The right testicle primary drains via the aortocaval nodes.

Metastases from testicular tumors most commonly occur to the lymphatic system followed by lung, liver and bone, and other visceral sites.

See the individual articles.

Article information

rID: 9059
Section: Gamuts
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Malignancy of the testes
  • Cancers of the testes
  • Malignancy of the testis
  • Cancers of the testis
  • Testicular tumours
  • Testicular cancers
  • Tumours of the testis
  • Tumors of the testis
  • Testicular tumors
  • Testicular malignancy
  • Testicular malignancies
  • Testicular neoplasms
  • Testicular neoplasm

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Cases and figures

  • Figure 1: gross specimen of a teratoma
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  • Case 2: seminoma
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  • Testicular terato...
    Case 3: testicular teratoma
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  • Choriocarcinoma
    Case 4: testicular choriocarcinoma
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  • Case 5: testicular mixed germ cell tumor
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  • Case 6: seminoma
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  • Case 7: metastatic mixed germ cell tumor of testis
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  • Case 8: in an undescended testicle
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