Testicular cancers are the most common neoplasm in men between the ages of 20 and 34.
Testicular cancer is uncommon, accounting for less than 1% of all internal organ malignancies 2.
The demographics of affected individuals depends on the age of the histology of the tumour. Over 90% of all tumours of the testes are primary germ cell tumours, and as such young adults are the overall most frequently involved group.
It is interesting to note that among the germ cell tumours there is also stratification according to age, with some tumours being more common in some age groups than others:
- 1st decade: yolk sac tumour and testicular teratoma
- 2nd decade: choriocarcinoma
- 3rd decade: embryonal cell carcinoma
- 4th decade: seminoma
- ≥7th decade: lymphoma (usually non-Hodgkin lymphoma) and spermatocytic seminoma
- Klinefelter syndrome
- family history
- previous history of contralateral testicular tumour
- infections: HIV, mumps, etc
- primary tumour: 94% of all tumours
testicular germ cell tumour: 90% of primary tumours
testicular seminoma: 40% of germ cell tumours 1
- non-seminomatous germ cell tumour: 60% of germ cell tumours
- testicular seminoma: 40% of germ cell tumours 1
- testicular non-germ cell tumour: 10% of primary tumours
- primary testicular lymphoma
- testicular germ cell tumour: 90% of primary tumours
- secondary tumour: 6% of all tumours
Regional lymph nodes
The following lymph node regions are considered regional:
- para-aortic (periaortic)
The left and right testicles have different drainage. The left testicle primarily drains through the para-aortic lymph nodes. The right testicle primary drains via the interaortocaval nodes.
Metastases from testicular tumours most commonly occur to the lymphatic system followed by lung, liver and bone, and other visceral sites.
See the individual articles.
- 1. Sohaib SA, Koh DM, Husband JE. The role of imaging in the diagnosis, staging, and management of testicular cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2008;191 (2): 387-95. doi:10.2214/AJR.07.2758 - Pubmed citation
- 2. Raghavan D. Germ cell tumors. Pmph USA Ltd. (2003) ISBN:1550090828. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 3. Coursey Moreno C, Small WC, Camacho JC et-al. Testicular tumors: what radiologists need to know-differential diagnosis, staging, and management. Radiographics. 2015;35 (2): 400-15. doi:10.1148/rg.352140097 - Pubmed citation