Wilhelm C Roentgen (1845-1923) was a German physicist who is celebrated globally for his discovery of x-rays on November 8th 1895.
Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen (Röntgen in German) was born on March 27th 1845 in Lennep, Germany. He attended the primary and secondary school run by Martinus Herman van Doorn in the town of Apeldoorn, Netherlands 1. Although born in Germany, with a German father, his mother was Dutch, and he grew up in the Netherlands.
At the age of 17 he moved to Utrecht, also in the Netherlands, and enrolled in the Utrecht Technical School. A few years later he was expelled on the grounds of a caricature of one of their teachers on the blackboard; he was innocent of this, but refused to say who had been responsible 1.
In 1865, aged 20, Wilhelm enrolled at the Mechanical Technical Division of the Zurich Polytechnicab School in Switzerland. Three years later he received the degree of mechanical engineer 1.
In 1869 he received his PhD in "Studies on Gases", also from Zurich Polytechnicab School, where he remained until 1870.
In 1870 he followed his mentor, Professor Kundt, to the Julius Maximilians University of Würzburg in Germany. This proved to be short-lived, with the appointment proving a disappointment to both Roentgen and Kundt 1.
Two years later, in 1872, both moved to Kaiser Wilhelms University of Strasbourg 1.
At the age of 30, in 1875 he became professor of physics at the Academy of Stuttgart-Hohenheim in Württemberg, which granted him German citizenship 1. This appointment was also short-lived, and Wilhelm moved back to Strasbourg in 1876 as professor of theoretical physics, back at Kaiser Wilhelms University.
Following significant publications, he moved in 1879 to the Justus von Liebig University of Giessen, where he was given the opportunity to design a new department.
In 1888 he moved one last time to the Physical Institute at the University of Würzburg, where he was to make the discovery he is most famous for.
Discovery of x-rays
Towards the end of 1895 Wilhelm became interested in the physical properties of cathode ray tubes, and began amassing relevant experimental equipment.
On Friday, November 8th 1895 Wilhelm was reproducing earlier work using low output Lenard tubes, whereby fluorescence was visible on a screen coated with barium platinocyanide. He moved on to a higher output Hittorf-Crookes tube, and reproduced the same phenomenon on a screen located near the tube. What he noticed, while in the darkened room, was similar fluorescence arising from another barium platinocyanide-coated screen over a metre away, far further than cathode ray tubes were known to work. Despite moving the screen even further, fluorescence was still visible 1.
Enraptured in the thrill of discovery he worked through the night, and soon noticed that these new rays seemed to effortlessly pass through many objects opaque to visible light (e.g. books), but were blocked by metal objects, their outline visible on the screen. While holding such an object he noted the outline of the bones of his hand 1. As the nature of the rays were unknown he called them x-rays.
Arguably the most famous x-ray ever taken, that of the hand of his wife Bertha, was dated December 27th 1895. Of course this was not the first x-ray ever taken as is erroneously believed by many. The next day, he delivered a paper titled “On a New Kind of Rays” to the Würzburg Physical-Medical Society 1. Only page one of his original manuscript remains extant; the other pages were disposed of after his death as stipulated in his will 2.
Roentgen was awarded the inaugural Nobel Prize for Physics in 1901, the citation read "The Academy has awarded Professor Röntgen of Munich the Nobel Prize for Physics on the grounds of discovery, the name of which will always be linked with him as Röntgen rays or as he calls them himself X-rays...From the properties associated with Röntgen rays, only those are considered that contribute to the far reaching applications these rays have found in medical practice." 2
- Rumford Medal (1896)
- Matteucci Medal (1896)
- Elliott Cresson Medal (1897)
- Nobel Prize for Physics (1901)
Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen developed colon cancer, eventually dying on February 10th 1923, at the age of 78 1.
- Discovery of x-rays, and arguably, the whole of radiology as we know it!
- The roentgen, an old unit of measurement of radiation exposure
- Element number 111 was named roentgenium (Rg) in his honour 3
- International Day of Radiology is celebrated annually on the anniversary of the date of the discovery of x-rays, i.e. 8th November.
- 1. Riesz PB. The life of Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1995;165 (6): 1533-7. doi:10.2214/ajr.165.6.7484601 - Pubmed citation
- 2. Adrian M. K. Thomas, Arpan K. Banerjee. The History of Radiology. (2013) ISBN: 9780199639977
- 3. Hancock RD, Bartolotti LJ, Kaltsoyannis N. Density functional theory-based prediction of some aqueous-phase chemistry of superheavy element 111. Roentgenium(I) is the "softest" metal ion. (2006) Inorganic chemistry. 45 (26): 10780-5. doi:10.1021/ic061282s - Pubmed
History of radiology
- key milestones
- 1895: Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen detects x-rays
- 1896: Antoine Henri Becquerel discovers radioactivity
- 1896: Sydney Rowland founds the first radiology journal, Archives of Clinical Skiagraphy
- 1896: Thomas Alva Edison invents the first commercially-available fluoroscope
- 1913: Albert Salomon commences research leading to mammography
- 1927: Egas Moniz develops cerebral angiography
- 1934: Frederic and Irene Joliot-Curie artificially produce radioisotopes
- 1936: John Lawrence uses phosphorus-32 to treat leukaemia
- 1950s: David Edmund Kuhl invents Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
- 1953: Sven-Ivar Seldinger develops his famous eponymous technique
- 1957: Ian Donald invents ultrasound
- 1964: Charles Dotter introduces image-guided intervention
- 1965: Benjamin Felson publishes Felson's Principles of Chest Roentgenology
- 1972: Godfrey Hounsfield introduces the CT scanner (co-developed with Allan M Cormack)
- 1977: Raymond Vahan Damadian builds the first commercial MRI scanner
- 2005: Frank Gaillard creates Radiopaedia.org :)
- key figures in the history of radiology
- history of modalities
- plain radiography
- nuclear medicine
- interventional radiology
- history of radiology journals
- history of radiology organisations
- Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists (RANZCR)
- United Kingdom
- British Institute of Radiology (BIR)
- Royal College of Radiologists (RCR)
- School and College of Radiographers (SCoR)
- United States
- American Roentgen Ray Society (ARRS)
- Radiological Society of North America (RSNA)
- American College of Radiology (ACR)
- European Society of Radiology (ESR)