Aspergillomas are mass-like fungus balls that are typically composed of Aspergillus fumigatus and are a non-invasive form of pulmonary aspergillosis. It usually falls under the subgroup chronic pulmonary aspergillosis.
Although the term mycetoma is frequently used to describe these fungal balls, it is an incorrect term to use 5-6.
Aspergillomas occur in patients with normal immunity but structurally abnormal lungs, with pre-existing cavities. Demographics will, therefore, match those of the underlying condition, such as 2:
- pulmonary tuberculosis: most common, accounting for 25-80% of cases depending on the prevalence of tuberculosis in the population 2-3
- pulmonary sarcoidosis
- bronchiectasis from any cause
- other pulmonary cavities
Most aspergillomas are asymptomatic. Occasionally due to surrounding reactive vascular granulation tissue, haemoptysis may be present. Occasionally, erosion into a bronchial artery may lead to life-threatening haemoptysis 1.
An aspergilloma is a mass-like collection of fungal hyphae, mixed with mucous and cellular debris, within a cavity the walls of which demonstrate vascular granulation tissue 1-2.
Aspergillomas typically occur in the cavities of post-primary pulmonary tuberculosis. Therefore, they are most frequently found in the posterior segments of the upper lobes and the superior segments of the lower lobes.
An Aspergilloma can be seen on both plain film and CT as an intracavitary mass surrounded by a crescent of air. The term "air-crescent" is however really seen in recovering invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. It is wrongly used by many to describe the air around an aspergilloma. The correct term to describe the crescent of air is the Monod sign in the setting of aspergilloma developing in a pre-existing cavity, although it is less widely recognised.
Aspergillomas typically appear as rounded or ovoid soft tissue attenuating masses located in a surrounding cavity and outlined by a crescent of air 1-4. Altering the position of the patient usually demonstrates that the mass is mobile, thus confirming the diagnosis.
Appearances are those of a well-formed cavity with a central soft tissue attenuating rounded mass surrounded by a crescent of air (Monod sign). The mass is typically spherical or ovoid. On different positioning of the patient, the mass can be shown to be mobile. On occasion the mass may entirely fill the cavity, thus taking on the shape of the cavity, obliterating the surrounding air crescent and no longer being mobile 2.
Calcification is not uncommon, which can range from none to heavy. Due to the inflammation and vascular granulation tissue formation, the bronchial arteries supplying the wall can sometimes be seen as markedly enlarged 2.
The adjacent pleura may well be thickened.
Treatment and prognosis
An asymptomatic aspergilloma does not necessarily require treatment, and the cavity is essentially isolated from any systemic administration of antifungal 3.
In the setting of brisk haemoptysis, angiography may be performed on an emergency basis and selective bronchial artery embolisation can be life-saving. Failing this, or in cases of repeated haemoptysis, surgical excision with a lobectomy remains the gold standard 3.
The mortality rate varies widely, but in more recent series is low, even where requiring surgery 3.
When classical in appearance there is little differential. If the mass fills the cavity completely then the differential is that of solitary pulmonary nodule.
- 1. Collins J, Stern EJ. Chest radiology, the essentials. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (2007) ISBN:0781763142. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 2. Müller NL, Franquet T, Lee KS et-al. Imaging of pulmonary infections. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (2007) ISBN:078177232X. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 3. Chen JC, Chang YL, Luh SP et-al. Surgical treatment for pulmonary aspergilloma: a 28 year experience. Thorax. 1997;52 (9): 810-3. Thorax (link) - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 4. Franquet T, Müller NL, Giménez A et-al. Spectrum of pulmonary aspergillosis: histologic, clinical, and radiologic findings. Radiographics. 21 (4): 825-37. Radiographics (full text) - Pubmed citation
- 5. Gaspari A, Tyring SK. Clinical and Basic Immunodermatology. Springer. (2008) ISBN:1848001649. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 6. Anaissie EJ, McGinnis MR, Pfaller MA. Clinical Mycology. Churchill Livingstone. (2009) ISBN:1416056807. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 7. Abramson S. The air crescent sign. Radiology. 2001;218 (1): 230-2. doi:10.1148/radiology.218.1.r01ja19230 - Pubmed citation
- CNS aspergillosis
- fungal sinusitis
- allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA)
- chronic necrotising pulmonary aspergillosis (CNPA) (or subacute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis or semi-invasive aspergillosis)
- airway invasive aspergillosis (or bronchopneumonic aspergillosis)
- angioinvasive aspergillosis
chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) - non-immunocompromised patients
- chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis (CCPA)
- chronic necrotising pulmonary aspergillosis (CNPA)
- chronic fibrosing pulmonary aspergillosis (CFPA): may progress to this from CCPA in untreated
- obstructive bronchopulmonary aspergillosis