CNS aspergillosis results from angioinvasive infection of the central nervous system by the fungus Aspergillus spp. Along with CNS cryptococcosis, it is one of the most common fungal opportunistic infections of the central nervous system.
The disease predominates in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with:
- prolonged high-dose corticosteroid use
- graft-vs-host disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation 1-4
Patients with CNS aspergillosis have a very varied, and often subtle, presentation, making initial diagnosis difficult 1,2. However, the most common presenting features, with or without fever, are 1,2:
- altered mental status
- focal neurological signs (e.g. hemiparesis, dysarthria)
There are two mechanisms of spread of Aspergillus spp to the CNS 1-3. Firstly, as per the pathogenesis of angioinvasive aspergillosis, spores of a variety of Aspergillus spp, most commonly Aspergillus fumigatus, are inhaled and proliferate in the alveoli, where the hyphae invade pulmonary arteries and gain access to the systemic circulation in 25-50% of cases 4. Once in the systemic circulation, spores can haematogenously spread to the CNS 1-4. Additionally, aspergillosis can also directly spread to the CNS via the paranasal sinuses, where it may manifest as invasive fungal rhinosinusitis 1-3.
Once in the CNS, the Aspergillus hyphae invade the walls of both small and large blood vessels 1,2. This either results in initial thrombosis leading to infarction, often followed by haemorrhage (in 25%), or development of mycotic aneurysms which can haemorrhage 1-3. This haemorrhage may lead to further parenchymal seeding of Aspergillus, resulting in infectious cerebritis and eventual brain abscess formation, often multiple in nature 3.
The disease can have a variety of radiographic presentations, but the main three findings are:
- brain abscess, often multiple, in a random distribution 1-3
- cerebral infarction(s) with or without associated haematoma(s) in a random distribution, although more likely to affect perforating artery territories 1-3
- invasive paranasal rhinosinusitis, either acute or chronic, with secondary intracranial dural enhancement consistent with intracerebral extension from the sinuses 1-3
CT findings can be often non-specific but in keeping with at least one of the main three aforementioned findings that are characteristic of CNS aspergillosis 1-2. Detecting multiple such lesions in an immunosuppressed patient should prompt further investigation with MRI.
Aspergillus abscess and invasive fungal rhinosinusitis
Abscesses are often multiple, present in a random distribution, and appear radiologically identical to other brain abscesses as classic ring-enhancing lesions with striking high signal intensity on DWI 1-3,5. However, Aspergillus abscesses may also have peripheral low signal intensity on T2-weighted images 2. This is better appreciated on GRE or SWI images, and is likely due to surrounding haemorrhage around the abscess 2.
In cases where CNS aspergillosis is secondary to paranasal sinus disease, associated invasive rhinosinusitis (either acute or chronic), osteomyelitis, local dural enhancement and subdural empyema may also be present 3.
Again, infarcts are often multiple, present in a random distribution, and are radiologically identical to other ischaemic strokes 1-3,5, especially those of perforating artery territories 3. Haemorrhage is present in up to 25%, and mycotic aneurysms may or may not be identified 1. Infarction and associated haemorrhage have a variety of appearances on MRI depending on their age (see ischaemic stroke and ageing blood on MRI).
Rarely, CNS aspergillosis can also present with a granulomatous tumour-like mass lesion 6,7. These, as described in case reports, are often hypo-to-isointense on T1-weighted images, hypointense on T2-weighted images, and demonstrate contrast enhancement on post-gadolinium T1-weighted images, but there is thought to be considerable variation 7,8.
Treatment and prognosis
CNS aspergillosis is treated with intravenous voriconazole 1-3,9,10, possibly in combination with caspofungin or liposomal amphotericin B 9. Neurosurgical opinion and intervention may also be sought 9. In immunocompromised hosts, which encompasses nearly all cases, it has a mortality approaching 100% if left untreated 1,2,10.
General imaging differential considerations include:
- 1. Tempkin AD, Sobonya RE, Seeger JF, Oh ES. Cerebral aspergillosis: radiologic and pathologic findings. Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc. 26 (4): 1239-42. doi:10.1148/rg.264055152 - Pubmed
- 2. Almutairi BM, Nguyen TB, Jansen GH, Asseri AH. Invasive aspergillosis of the brain: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc. 29 (2): 375-9. doi:10.1148/rg.292075143 - Pubmed
- 3. David R. DeLone, Ross A. Goldstein, Greg Petermann, M. Shahriar Salamat, Janet M. Miles, Stuart J. Knechtle, W. Douglas Brown. Disseminated Aspergillosis Involving the Brain: Distribution and Imaging Characteristics. American Journal of Neuroradiology. 20 (9): 1597. Pubmed
- 4. Müller NL, Franquet T, Lee KS et-al. Imaging of pulmonary infections. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (2007) ISBN:078177232X. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 5. Marzolf G, Sabou M, Lannes B, Cotton F, Meyronet D, Galanaud D, Cottier JP, Grand S, Desal H, Kreutz J, Schenck M, Meyer N, Schneider F, Dietemann JL, Koob M, Herbrecht R, Kremer S. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cerebral Aspergillosis: Imaging and Pathological Correlations. PloS one. 11 (4): e0152475. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0152475 - Pubmed
- 6. Nadkarni T, Goel A. Aspergilloma of the brain: an overview. Journal of postgraduate medicine. 51 Suppl 1: S37-41. Pubmed
- 7. Azarpira N, Esfandiari M, Bagheri MH, Rakei S, Salari S. Cerebral aspergillosis presenting as a mass lesion. The Brazilian journal of infectious diseases : an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases. 12 (4): 349-51. Pubmed
- 8. Siddiqui AA, Bashir SH, Ali Shah A, Sajjad Z, Ahmed N, Jooma R, Enam SA. Diagnostic MR imaging features of craniocerebral Aspergillosis of sino-nasal origin in immunocompetent patients. Acta neurochirurgica. 148 (2): 155-66; discussion 166. doi:10.1007/s00701-005-0659-3 - Pubmed
- 9. Ruhnke M, Kofla G, Otto K, Schwartz S. CNS aspergillosis: recognition, diagnosis and management. CNS drugs. 21 (8): 659-76. Pubmed
- 10. Schwartz S, Thiel E. CNS-aspergillosis: are there new treatment options?. Mycoses. 46 Suppl 2: 8-14. Pubmed
Infections of the central nervous system
- classification by aetiology
- eastern equine encephalitis
- enterovirus rhomboencephalitis
- flavivirus encephalitis
herpes virus family
- herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis
- herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) encephalitis
- varicella zoster virus (VZV) encephalitis
- Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encephalitis
- cytomegalovirus (CMV) encephalitis
- human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) encephalitis
- HIV CNS manifestations
- HTLV-1-associated myelopathy
- JC virus
- measles encephalitis
- Nipah virus (NiV) encephalitis
- rabies encephalitis
- CNS listeriosis (Listeria monocytogenes)
- CNS nocardiosis (Nocardia spp)
- CNS tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
- Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi)
- neurosyphilis (Treponema pallidum)
- Rocky Mountain spotted fever (Rickettsia rickettsii)
- cerebral amoebiasis
- cerebral malaria (Plasmodium falciparum)
- cerebral sparganosis (Spirometra mansonoides)
- neurocysticercosis (Taenia solium)
- neurohydatidosis (Echinococcus spp)
- neurotoxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
- others or those with possible infectious aetiologies
- classification by location
- meninges and ventricular system
- brain parenchyma, brainstem, and spinal cord
- classification by aetiology