Acute acalculous cholecystitis refers to the development of cholecystitis in gallbladder either without gallstones or with gallstones where they are not the contributory factor. It is thought to occur most often due to biliary stasis and/or gallbladder ischemia.
Acute acalculous cholecystitis represents 5-10% of cases of acute cholecystitis.
Risk factors for acute acalculous cholecystitis include 2:
- severe tissue injury (e.g. major trauma and burns)
- postoperative (especially following major surgery e.g. valvular replacement 13)
- diabetes mellitus
- congestive heart failure
- cardiac arrest
- advanced age 12
- concomitant opioid therapy
- positive-pressure ventilation (PPV)
- total parenteral nutrition (TPN)
- viral infections: Epstein-Barr virus, dengue virus, hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, cytomegalovirus (CMV), disseminated varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Zika virus and HIV 15
Acute acalculous cholecystitis usually occurs in critically ill or injured patients (e.g. trauma, burns, sepsis). The risk factors listed above may affect the perfusion of the gallbladder and favor bile stasis leading to injury and inflammation. Subsequent ischemia-reperfusion injury to the gallbladder is also a central pathogenic feature 2,9. A rare cause of acalculous cholecystitis occurring in patients with advanced cancer is gallbladder metastases 10.
Generally, ultrasound is needed to confidently exclude the presence of gallstones.
May show gallbladder wall edema, pericholecystic fluid, and gallbladder distention (the first two considered the two most important criteria 2). The sonographic Murphy sign may be positive. A sonolucent intramural layer or “halo” that represents intramural edema may also be present.
A sonogram may be considered highly suggestive of the diagnosis with two of the following major criteria, or one major and two minor criteria fulfilled 14;
- major criteria
- minor criteria
- echogenic bile or sludge in the lumen
- transverse diameter >5 cm
Tc-99m iminodiacetic acid cholescintigraphy is considered a highly reliable test and may be performed even in acutely ill patients. Ideally, there is non-visualization of the gallbladder.
Treatment and prognosis
The importance of recognizing acalculous cholecystitis lies in the fact that these patients have a high rate of recurrence when treated with medical management. As such, cholecystectomy is the definitive treatment. However, patients that are not fit for surgery can undergo percutaneous or endoscopic biliary drainage as an alternative therapy, though cholecystectomy may still be performed when the patient improves.
- 1. Joseph T, Unver K, Hwang GL et-al. Percutaneous cholecystostomy for acute cholecystitis: ten-year experience. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2012;23 (1): 83-8.e1. doi:10.1016/j.jvir.2011.09.030 - Pubmed citation
- 2. Barie PS, Eachempati SR. Acute acalculous cholecystitis. Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 2010;39 (2): 343-57, x. doi:10.1016/j.gtc.2010.02.012 - Pubmed citation
- 3. Mirvis SE, Vainright JR, Nelson AW et-al. The diagnosis of acute acalculous cholecystitis: a comparison of sonography, scintigraphy, and CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1986;147 (6): 1171-5. AJR Am J Roentgenol (citation) - Pubmed citation
- 4. Ananian C, Dunn A, Mansourian V et-al. Scintigraphic gallbladder visualization with gangrenous acalculous cholecystitis. Clin Nucl Med. 2006;31 (11): 701-3. doi:10.1097/01.rlu.0000242700.10483.08 - Pubmed citation
- 5. Swayne LC. Acute acalculous cholecystitis: sensitivity in detection using technetium-99m iminodiacetic acid cholescintigraphy. Radiology. 1986;160 (1): 33-8. Radiology (citation) - Pubmed citation
- 6. Ramanna L, Brachman MB, Tanasescu DE et-al. Cholescintigraphy in acute acalculous cholecystitis. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 1984;79 (8): 650-3. - Pubmed citation
- 7. Weissmann HS, Berkowitz D, Fox MS et-al. The role of technetium-99m iminodiacetic acid (IDA) cholescintigraphy in acute acalculous cholecystitis. Radiology. 1983;146 (1): 177-80. Radiology (citation) - Pubmed citation
- 8. Tulchinsky M, Colletti PM, Allen TW. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy in acute cholecystitis. Semin Nucl Med. 2012;42 (2): 84-100. doi:10.1053/j.semnuclmed.2011.10.005 - Pubmed citation
- 9. Henryk Dancygier. Clinical Hepatology. ISBN: 9783540938422
- 10. Barretta ML, Catalano O, Setola SV, Granata V, Marone U, D'Errico Gallipoli A. Gallbladder metastasis: spectrum of imaging findings. (2011) Abdominal imaging. 36 (6): 729-34. doi:10.1007/s00261-011-9696-y - Pubmed
- 11. Huffman JL, Schenker S. Acute acalculous cholecystitis: a review. (2010) Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. 8 (1): 15-22. doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2009.08.034 - Pubmed
- 12. Gu MG, Kim TN, Song J,et al. Risk factors and therapeutic outcomes of acute acalculous cholecystitis. (2014) Digestion. 90 (2): 75-80. doi:10.1159/000362444 - Pubmed
- 13. Sl Alves de Oliveira Júnior, T Emanuel Véras Lemos, A Costa de Medeiros Junior, et al. Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis in Critically ill Patients: Risk Factors, Diagnosis and Treatment Strategies. JOP. Journal of the Pancreas.
- 14. Huffman JL, Schenker S. Acute acalculous cholecystitis: a review. (2010) Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. 8 (1): 15-22. doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2009.08.034 - Pubmed
- 15. William F. Wright, Kathryn Palisoc, Casey N. Pinto, James A. Lease, Salim Baghli. Hepatitis C Virus-Associated Acalculous Cholecystitis and Review of the Literature. (2020) Clinical Medicine & Research. 18 (1): 33. doi:10.3121/cmr.2019.1499 - Pubmed
Related Radiopaedia articles
Gallbladder and biliary tract pathology
- congenital malformations and anatomical variants
- gallbladder inflammation
- bile ducts inflammation
- gallbladder wall abnormalities
- diffuse gallbladder wall thickening (differential)
- focal gallbladder wall thickening (differential)
- porcelain gallbladder
- gallbladder polyps
- gallbladder malignancy
- other gallbladder abnormalities
- bile ducts neoplasms