Tibialis anterior muscle
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The tibialis anterior muscle is a long narrow fusiform-shaped muscle located in the anterior compartment of the leg. It is the most superficial and largest muscle of the group and is the main foot dorsiflexor.
origin: superior two thirds of the lateral surface of tibia and adjacent interosseous membrane
insertion: inferomedial aspect of medial cuneiform and base of first metatarsal
dorsiflexion of foot at ankle
inversion of the foot (at subtalar and midtarsal joints)
helps to hold up medial longitudinal arch of foot
blood supply: branches of the anterior tibial and fibular arteries
innervation: deep peroneal nerve (L4 - S1)
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The tibialis anterior lies medial to the extensor digitorum longus and extensor hallucis longus. The muscle pierces the superior extensor retinacula but travels deep to the inferior retinacula which holds it in place.
The tibialis anterior muscle originates from the lateral condyle and upper two-thirds of the lateral surface of the tibia. Additionally, it arises from the interosseous membrane of the leg, deep surface of the fascia cruris and the anterior intermuscular septum.
The tibialis anterior inserts on the medial cuneiform bone and base of the first metatarsal bone.
The tibialis anterior muscle provides dorsiflexion at the talocrural (ankle) joint and inversion of the foot at the subtalar and midtarsal (Chopart's) joints. It also plays a role in supporting the medial longitudinal arch of the foot.
The tibialis anterior is innervated by the deep peroneal (fibular) nerve (L4 - S1), a branch of the common peroneal nerve.
The muscle receives arterial blood supply primarily from the branches of the anterior tibial artery in addition to branches of the posterior tibial artery.
Os sesamoideum tibialis anterioris is an accessory sesamoid bone that arises during embryonic development which is sometimes incorrectly misdiagnosed as a fracture 4.
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- 2. Varghese A, Bianchi S. Ultrasound of tibialis anterior muscle and tendon: anatomy, technique of examination, normal and pathologic appearance. J Ultrasound. 2014;17 (2): 113-23. doi:10.1007/s40477-013-0060-7 - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 3. Mengiardi B, Pfirrmann CW, Vienne P et-al. Anterior tibial tendon abnormalities: MR imaging findings. Radiology. 2005;235 (3): 977-84. doi:10.1148/radiol.2353040617 - Pubmed citation
- 4. Theodore Eliot Keats, Mark Anderson. Atlas of Normal Roentgen Variants That May Simulate Disease. (2001) ISBN: 9780323013222 - Google Books