Chordomas are uncommon malignant tumours of the axial skeleton that account for 1% of intracranial tumours and 4% of all primary bone tumours.
They originate from embryonic remnants of the primitive notochord (earliest fetal axial skeleton, extending from the Rathke's pouch to the tip of the coccyx). Since chordomas arise in bone, they are usually extradural and result in local bone destruction. They are locally aggressive but uncommonly metastasise.
Chordomas can occur at any age but are usually seen in adults (30-70 years). Those located in the spheno-occipital region most commonly occur in patients 20-40 years of age, whereas sacrococcygeal chordomas are typically seen in a slightly older age group (peak around 50 years 10). They are commonly found in Caucasians 3.
They are slow growing tumours and usually present due to mass effect on adjacent structures (brainstem, cranial nerves, nasopharynx, spinal cord), or as a palpable mass (e.g. sacrococcygeal chordoma) 10.
Macroscopically, chordomas present as firm masses. Fluid and gelatinous mucoid substance (associated with recent and old haemorrhage) and necrotic areas are found within these tumours. In some patients, calcification and sequestered bone fragments are found as well. The variety of these components may explain the signal heterogeneity observed on MRI.
Microscopically, chordomas are characterised by physaliphorous cells. These tumours are often poorly marginated and microscopic distal extension of tumour cells likely explains the frequency of recurrences.
Three subtypes are recognized 11,14,15:
- conventional chordoma (most common)
- chondroid chordoma (best prognosis)
- dedifferentiated chordoma (least common, worst prognosis)
True malignant forms of chordomas occasionally have areas of typical chordoma as well as undifferentiated areas, most often fibrosarcoma. The prognosis in such cases is poor.
Chordomas are found along the axial skeleton and a relatively evenly distributed among three locations:
- sacrococcygeal: 30-50% 2-3
- spheno-occipital: 30-35%
- vertebral body: 15-30%
Sacrococcygeal is the most common location, accounting for approximately 30-50% 2-3 of all chordomas and commonly involving the fourth and fifth sacral segments 2. In this location, a male predilection has been reported (M:F ratio of 2:1), and the tumour may be particularly large at presentation 10.
Chordoma is the most common primary malignant sacral tumour 9-10.
The clival region is the second most common location, accounting for 30-35% of cases 2-3. Typically the mass projects posteriorly at midline, indenting the pons; this characteristic appearance has been termed the so-called thumb sign. In contrast to sacrococcygeal tumours, there is no recognised gender difference.
Chordomas of the vertebral bodies are rare, but nonetheless, after lymphoproliferative tumours, are the second most common primary malignancy of the spine in adults 2.
They most commonly involve cervical (particularly C2), followed by lumbar, and then the thoracic spine. They often extend across the intervertebral disc space, involving more than one vertebral segment. They may extend into the epidural space compressing the spinal cord, or along the nerve roots enlarging the neural foramen.
MRI and CT scan have complementary roles in tumour evaluation. CT evaluation is needed to assess the degree of bone involvement and to detect patterns of calcification within the lesion. MRI provides excellent anatomical delineation of adjacent structures and is able to characterise the signal of the lesion usually allowing for a confident preoperative diagnosis. MRI is, however, limited in its ability to evaluate calcification and the precise involvement of skull base osteolysis less well than CT, especially for skull base foramina.
- centrally located
- destructive lytic lesion, sometimes with marginal sclerosis
- expansile soft-tissue mass
- usually hyper-attenuating relative to adjacent brain; however, inhomogenous areas may be seen due to necrosis or haemorrhage
- soft-tissue mass is often disproportionately large relative to the bony destruction
- irregular intratumoral calcifications (thought to represent sequestra of normal bone rather than dystrophic calcifications)
- moderate to marked enhancement
- intermediate to low-signal intensity
- small foci of hyperintensity (intratumoral haemorrhage or a mucus pool)
- T2: most exhibit very high signal
T1 C+ (Gd)
- heterogeneous enhancement with a honeycomb appearance corresponding to low T1 signal areas within the tumour
- greater enhancement has been associated with poorer prognosis 11
- SWI/GE: variable intralesional haemorrhage, suggested by the presence of blooming artefact
- conventional chordoma: 1474 ± 117 x 10-6 mm2/s 13
- dedifferentiated chordoma: 875 ± 100 x 10-6 mm2/s 13
Treatment and prognosis
Traditionally, surgical resection has been the first line of treatment when feasible, with radiotherapy offered for recurrent cases. Some advocate the combination of radiation therapy and complete or subtotal surgical resection for select patients 6. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation has been trialled as an adjunct therapy 8. Recurrence, including seeding along the operative tract, is common.
Metastatic spread of chordomas is observed in 7-14% of patients and includes nodal, pulmonary, bone, cerebral or abdominal visceral involvement, predominantly from massive tumours 12.
Prognosis is typically poor due to the locally aggressive nature of these tumours, with an overall 10-year survival of approximately 40%.
Histological subtype also has a substantial impact on prognosis with chondroid chordoma having the best prognosis and dedifferentiated chordoma the worst prognosis; the more common conventional chordoma having intermediate prognosis 14,15.
For clival/spheno-occipital lesions differentials to consider include:
- chondrosarcoma of skull base
- meningioma of skull base
- pituitary macroadenoma
- ecchordosis physaliphora
- benign notochordal cell tumour
For vertebral lesions, consider:
- neural arch > vertebral body
- thoracic spine is the most commonly involved spinal region
- chondroid matrix (rings & arcs)
- similar MRI appearance to chordomas (low to intermediate signal intensity on T1, hyperintense on T2, enhances)
- higher ADC values: 2051 ± 261 x 10-6 mm2/s 13
giant cell tumour
- location: sacrum > thoracic spine > cervical spine > lumbar spine
- no mineralised matrix
- heterogeneous intermediate to hyperintense T2 signal
- hypointense on T1; variably hyperintense on T2
- often multiple, involving vertebral bodies and posterior elements
- destructive vertebral body lesion (similar appearance to lytic metastases)
- multifocal disease
- heterogenous T2 signal
- 1. Doucet V, Peretti-Viton P, Figarella-Branger D et-al. MRI of intracranial chordomas. Extent of tumour and contrast enhancement: criteria for differential diagnosis. Neuroradiology. 1997;39 (8): 571-6. Neuroradiology (link) - Pubmed citation
- 2. Murphey MD, Andrews CL, Flemming DJ et-al. From the archives of the AFIP. Primary tumors of the spine: radiologic pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 1996;16 (5): 1131-58. Radiographics (abstract) - Pubmed citation
- 3. Erdem E, Angtuaco EC, Van Hemert R et-al. Comprehensive review of intracranial chordoma. Radiographics. 23 (4): 995-1009. doi:10.1148/rg.234025176 - Pubmed citation
- 4. de Bruïne FT, Kroon HM. Spinal chordoma: radiologic features in 14 cases. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1988;150 (4): 861-3. AJR Am J Roentgenol (abstract) - Pubmed citation
- 5. Fischbein NJ, Kaplan MJ, Holliday RA et-al. Recurrence of clival chordoma along the surgical pathway. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2000;21 (3): 578-83. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol (full text) - Pubmed citation
- 6. Amendola BE, Amendola MA, Oliver E et-al. Chordoma: role of radiation therapy. Radiology. 1986;158 (3): 839-43. Radiology (abstract) - Pubmed citation
- 7. Albisinni U, Rimondi E, Malaguti MC et-al. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of chordoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2004;183 (1): 245. AJR Am J Roentgenol (full text) - Pubmed citation
- 8. Neeman Z, Patti JW, Wood BJ. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of chordoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2002;179 (5): 1330-2. AJR Am J Roentgenol (full text) - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 9. Haaga JR. CT and MRI of the whole body. Philadelphia, PA : Mosby/Elsevier, c2009. (2009) ISBN:0323053750. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 10. Farsad K, Kattapuram SV, Sacknoff R et-al. Sacral chordoma. Radiographics. 2009;29 (5): 1525-30. doi:10.1148/rg.295085215 - Pubmed citation
- 11. Lin E, Scognamiglio T, Zhao Y, Schwartz TH, Phillips CD. Prognostic Implications of Gadolinium Enhancement of Skull Base Chordomas. (2018) AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology. doi:10.3174/ajnr.A5714 - Pubmed
- 12. Young VA, Curtis KM, Temple HT, Eismont FJ, DeLaney TF, Hornicek FJ. Characteristics and Patterns of Metastatic Disease from Chordoma. (2015) Sarcoma. 2015: 517657. doi:10.1155/2015/517657 - Pubmed
- 13. Yeom KW, Lober RM, Mobley BC, Harsh G, Vogel H, Allagio R, Pearson M, Edwards MS, Fischbein NJ. Diffusion-weighted MRI: distinction of skull base chordoma from chondrosarcoma. (2013) AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology. 34 (5): 1056-61, S1. doi:10.3174/ajnr.A3333 - Pubmed
- 14. Zou MX, Lv GH, Zhang QS, Wang SF, Li J, Wang XB. Prognostic Factors in Skull Base Chordoma: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis. (2018) World neurosurgery. 109: 307-327. doi:10.1016/j.wneu.2017.10.010 - Pubmed
- 15. Wu Z, Zhang J, Zhang L, Jia G, Tang J, Wang L, Wang Z. Prognostic factors for long-term outcome of patients with surgical resection of skull base chordomas-106 cases review in one institution. (2010) Neurosurgical review. 33 (4): 451-6. doi:10.1007/s10143-010-0273-6 - Pubmed
The differential diagnosis for bone tumours is dependent on the age of the patient, with a very different set of differentials for the paediatric patient.
- bone-forming tumours
- cartilage-forming tumours
- chondromyxoid fibroma
- fibrous bone lesions
- bone marrow tumours
- other bone tumours or tumour-like lesions
- aneurysmal bone cyst
- benign fibrous histiocytoma
- giant cell tumour of bone
- Gorham massive osteolysis
- haemophilic pseudotumour
- intradiploic epidermoid cyst
- intraosseous lipoma
- musculoskeletal angiosarcoma
- musculoskeletal haemangiopericytoma
- primary intraosseous haemangioma
- simple bone cyst
- impending fracture risk
Pituitary region masses
- pituitary gland anatomy
- pituitary MRI - an approach
pituitary region masses
- most common pituitary region masses
- solid and enhancing pituitary region mass
- mixed cystic and solid pituitary region mass
- mostly/purely cystic pituitary region masses
- purely intrasellar pituitary mass
- pituitary region mass with intrinsic high T1 signal
- abnormal enhancement/bulkiness of the pituitary infundibulum
- enlarged sella turcica
- mnemonic: SATCHMO
- history of imaging the pituitary region
- pituitary adenoma (commonest in the adult population)
- pituitary carcinoma
- pituitary lymphoma
- optic pathway glioma
- dermoid (CNS) / epidermoid / intracranial teratoma
- spindle cell oncocytomas
- pituitary metastases
- granular cell tumour of the pituitary (pituitary choristoma)
- pilocytic astrocytoma of the neurohypophysis (infundibuloma)
- cellular infiltrates
- other lesions
- pituitary tumours