Facial fractures are commonly caused by blunt or penetrating trauma sustained during motor vehicle accidents, assaults, and falls. The facial bones are thin and light making them susceptible to injury.
Males are affected more commonly than females and facial fractures are most common in the third decade 4.
The "facial buttress" concept elucidates the structurally meaningful skeletal struts that play a role in facial form and function and helps identify the regions that are likely to require surgical reconstruction.
The nasal bones are the most commonly fractured single bone, followed by the mandible and the bony orbit. Fractures involving more than one bone most commonly affect the orbital floor and zygomaticomaxilla 4.
- complex fractures which involve multiple facial buttresses:
- fractures which involve a single facial buttress:
Plain x-rays are relatively insensitive to facial fractures.
MDCT is the modality most often used for imaging evaluation in facial fractures because of:
- rapid examination with easier patient positioning
- providing high image resolution which allows accurate detection of subtle facial fractures and also clearly delineates soft-tissue features
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- 3. Rhea JT, Novelline RA. How to simplify the CT diagnosis of Le Fort fractures. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2005;184 (5): 1700-5. doi:10.2214/ajr.184.5.01841700 - Pubmed citation
- 4. Hwang K, You SH. Analysis of facial bone fractures: An 11-year study of 2,094 patients. Indian J Plast Surg. 2010;43 (1): 42-8. doi:10.4103/0970-0358.63959 - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation