Flail chest

Flail chest or flail thoracic segment occurs when three or more contiguous ribs are fractured in two or more places. Clinically, a segment of only one or two ribs can act as a flail segment, hence there is some controversy between the clinical and radiological definitions.

Clinically, this is observed in a non-ventilated patient as paradoxical movement of the flail segment. It can often be clinically occult 4-5. Its significance lies in the fact that it can lead to severe ventilation difficulties, especially in the peri-intubated patient.

A flail chest is predominantly regarded as a marker for chest trauma severity and is almost always associated with other thoracic injuries, which are also major contributors to respiratory insufficiency, such as 1, 2, 5:

Aetiology

Flail chest is most commonly associated with high-impact thoracic blunt trauma and results from severe anteroposterior compression found in motor vehicle collisions, blast or crush injuries 5.

Plain radiograph

Chest x-ray is less sensitive than CT for the diagnosis of flail segments 4.

  • defined as ≥3 adjacent ribs with segmental fractures and/or >5 adjacent rib fractures
  • traumatic 1st rib fracture: marker of severe chest trauma as the rib is protected by the clavicle and scapula
    • 10% with aortic transection, 2% associated with bronchial tear
      • non-traumatic 1st rib fracture: low occurrence of major vascular injury
  • costal hook sign: elephant trunk-shaped ribs owing to rotation of segmental fractures

Flail chest is usually managed supportively, with adequate analgesia and chest physiotherapy to assist with volume expansion, and secretion management and to prevent secondary complications of atelectasis and pneumonia6. 'Internal splinting' with positive pressure ventilation can help and select cases can be treated surgically by internal fixation 3.

  • thoracostomy tube
  • pathological rib fracture
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Article Information

rID: 10820
Section: Pathology
Tag: trauma
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Flail segment
  • Flail thoracic segment

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Cases and Figures

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    Case 1: flail segment
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    Case 1: post internal fixation
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    Case 2: right flail
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    Case 3
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    Case 4
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    Case 5
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