Portal venous gas is the accumulation of gas in the portal vein and its branches. It needs to be distinguished from pneumobilia, although this is usually not too problematic, when associated findings are taken into account along with the pattern of gas (i.e. peripheral in portal venous gas, central in pneumobilia).
Gas in the portal veins usually manifests as an echogenic moving foci in the lumen of the portal vein
Associated with sharp spikes on both sides of the basal line on the Doppler spectral display 7.
Although traditionally considered a harbinger of death, portal venous gas is increasingly recognised in a variety of conditions, many of which do not carry as high mortality or morbidity risks.
Causes of portal venous gas are best divided according to the age of the patient:
- alterations of bowel wall
- bowel luminal distention
- intra-abdominal sepsis
- unknown mechanism
- 1. Eisenberg RL. Gastrointestinal radiology, a pattern approach. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (1996) ISBN:0397514808. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 2. Sebastià C, Quiroga S, Espin E et-al. Portomesenteric vein gas: pathologic mechanisms, CT findings, and prognosis. Radiographics. 20 (5): 1213-24. Radiographics (full text) - Pubmed citation
- 3. Dähnert W. Radiology Review Manual. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (2011) ISBN:1609139437. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 4. Allaparthi SB, Anand CP. Acute gastric dilatation: a transient cause of hepatic portal venous gas-case report and review of the literature. Case Rep Gastrointest Med. 2013;2013: 723160. doi:10.1155/2013/723160 - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 5. Abboud B, El Hachem J, Yazbeck T, Doumit C. Hepatic portal venous gas: physiopathology, etiology, prognosis and treatment. World journal of gastroenterology. 15 (29): 3585-90. Pubmed
- 6. Kesarwani V, Ghelani DR, Reece G. Hepatic portal venous gas: a case report and review of literature. Indian journal of critical care medicine : peer-reviewed, official publication of Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine. 13 (2): 99-102. doi:10.4103/0972-5229.56058 - Pubmed
- 7. Lafortune M, Trinh BC, Burns PN, Breton G, Burke M, Déry R, Gianfelice D, Philie M, Côté J. Air in the portal vein: sonographic and Doppler manifestations. (1991) Radiology. 180 (3): 667-70. doi:10.1148/radiology.180.3.1871276 - Pubmed
- 8. Wolfgang F. Dahnert. Radiology Review Manual. (2011) ISBN: 9781496360694