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At the time the article was created Marcin Czarniecki had no recorded disclosures.View Marcin Czarniecki's current disclosures
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When prominent, superior vena cava obstruction should be considered as the left superior intercostal vein serves as a collateral pathway.
Very rarely, an absent azygos vein will be the cause of an aortic nipple 3.
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- 2. McDonald CJ, Castellino RA, Blank N. The aortic "nipple". The left superior intercostal vein. Radiology. 1970;96 (3): 533-6. doi:10.1148/96.3.533 - Pubmed citation
- 3. Hatfield MK, Vyborny CJ, MacMahon H, Chessare JW. Congenital absence of the azygos vein: a cause for "aortic nipple" enlargement. (1987) AJR. American journal of roentgenology. 149 (2): 273-4. doi:10.2214/ajr.149.2.273 - Pubmed