Radiation damage (skin injury)
Radiation-induced skin injuries can occur in both radiotherapy and fluoroscopic procedures such as interventional radiology.
Acute radiation doses above 2 Gy are known to result in erythema, permanent epilation will occur at 7 Gy and delayed skin necrosis transpires above doses of 12 Gy.
The damage is related to the absorbed dose of the area of skin receiving the most exposure in the examinations.
Methods to control skin dose
- maintain a low current and therefore a higher kV
- ensure the detector is as close to the patient as possible
- tight collimation to the area of interest
- minimise screening time
- do no use a grid for smaller patients
- when a substantial gap is between the patient and detector remove the grid as this utilises the air gap technique
- 1. ICRP, 2000. Avoidance of Radiation Injuries from Medical Interventional Procedures. ICRP Publication 85. Ann. ICRP 30 (2).
- x-ray production
- x-ray tubes
- tube rating
- interaction with matter
- beam collimators
- intensifying screen
- x-ray film
- image intensifier
- digital radiography
- x-ray artifacts
- radiation units
- radiation detectors