In-phase and out-of-phase sequences

Last revised by Dr Mohamed Saber on 31 Dec 2020

In-phase (IP) and out-of-phase (OOP) sequences correspond to paired MRI gradient echo (GRE) sequences obtained with the same repetition time (TR) but with two different echo time (TE) values. 

Applications

The main application of the IP-OOP sequences is to identify pathological (microscopic) fat content of tissues in the abdomen by showing signal intensities drop on the OOP images compared to the IP images. Loss of signal intensity between the in-phase and out-of-phase MR images indicates fat. Examples where IP-OOP sequences are useful include 1,2:

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Cases and figures

  • Case 1: lipid-rich left adrenal adenoma
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  • Case 2: lipid-poor hepatic adenoma
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  • Case 3: fatty liver
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  • Case 4: lipid-rich hepatic adenoma
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  • Case 5: focal fatty change
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  • Case 6: lobar distribution pattern of the focal fatty infiltration
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  • Case 7: lipid-rich right adrenal adenoma
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  • Case 8: hemochromatosis
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  • Case 9: lipid-rich left adrenal adenoma
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  • Case 10: primary hemochromatosis
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  • Case 11: vertebral metastases from breast cancer
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  • Case 12: lipid rich hepatic adenoma
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