Borderline ovarian serous cystadenoma

Borderline ovarian serous cystadenomas lie in the intermediate range in the spectrum of ovarian serous tumours and represent approximately 15% of all serous tumours.  

They present at the younger age group 1-2 than the more malignant serous cystadenocarcinomas with a peak age of presentation of ~ 45 years of age 1

The tumours are often clinically silent until they achieve an advanced size or stage. The most frequent initial manifestations were abdominal pain, increasing abdominal girth or distension or as an abdominal mass 2.

Borderline tumours fall under ovarian epithelial tumours. They tend to develop in an exophytic growth pattern, on the surface of the ovary, without invading the underlying stroma. Papillary projections are characteristic and may be more of a feature with borderline than malignant serous cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary.

A unique feature of a borderline tumours is the non-invasive behavior of extra-ovarian tumour implants in the advanced stages of the disease 2-3. Implants can occur to the contralateral ovary, omentum, and peritoneal surface in the advanced stages, although they behave in a benign fashion and remain located on the surface of the underlying tissues.

Markers

Serum CA-125 level is typically mildly elevated.

General

Typically seen as bilateral adnexal masses with profuse papillary projections. Bilaterality occurs more frequently than with benign ovarian serous cystadenomas 1.

Serous borderline tumours may display aggressive behaviour, and occasionally present with peritoneal or nodal metastases.

Ultrasound
Doppler ultrasound

The rate of detection of intra tumoral blood flow on Doppler ultrasound can be very similar to more malignant neoplasms 2.

Staging

Borderline tumours are staged using the same ovarian cancer staging as malignant ovarian neoplasms.

Post surgical prognosis is better than for ovarian cystadenocarcinoma, even in the presence of transovarian spread5.

They were first described in 1929 and were designated for separate classification in the early 1970s by the World Health Organisation 2.

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Article Information

rID: 14501
System: Gynaecology
Tag: cases
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Ovarian borderline serous cystadenoma
  • Borderline serous ovarian tumour
  • Borderline serous ovarian tumours
  • Borderline papillary serous cystadenoma of ovary
  • Borderline papillary serous tumours of ovary
  • Borderline papillary serous tumour of ovary
  • Borderline serous cystadenoma of the ovary
  • Borderline serous cystadenoma of ovary
  • Serous ovarian tumour of low malignant potential
  • Serous borderline tumour (SBT) of the ovary
  • Ovarian borderline serous tumour
  • Borderline ovarian serous cystadenomas

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