Gonadoblastomas are uncommon sex cord / stromal tumours. They are associated with disorders of sexual development (previously known as "intersex disorders").
The vast majority are found <30 years of age. Most are discovered in the perinatal period. May occur in phenotypic males or females.
- associated with disorders of sexual development (previously known as "intersex disorders")
- often found during a workup for an newborn or infant with ambiguous genitalia
- may be hormonally active and present with precocious puberty or virilization 5
They are associated with chromosomal abnormalities and gonadal dysgenesis.
Gonadoblastomas are considered by some to be a subtype of undifferentiated (or "mixed" sex cord / stromal tumors, although others consider them distinct entities 2.
Other imaging findings of a developmental sex disorder should be present. They are bilateral in 30-50% of cases.
- imaging findings are not well defined
- reported as a hyperechoic lesion in the testicle 4, but data is limited
Treatment and prognosis
Although a gonadoblastoma itself is benign, if it is not removed, it tends to develop into a germ cell tumour 2. They are often discovered coexisting with malignancy. If there is a contralateral undescended testicle, it is often removed, as it is considered likely to also harbor a gonadoblastoma 3.
- 1. Sommers D, Winter T. Ultrasonography Evaluation of Scrotal Masses. Radiol. Clin. North Am. 2014;52 (6): 1265-1281. doi:10.1016/j.rcl.2014.07.014 - Pubmed citation
- 2. Ulbright TM, Young RH. Gonadoblastoma and selected other aspects of gonadal pathology in young patients with disorders of sex development. Semin Diagn Pathol. 2014;31 (5): 427-40. doi:10.1053/j.semdp.2014.07.001 - Pubmed citation
- 3. Papaioannou G, Sebire NJ, McHugh K. Imaging of the unusual pediatric 'blastomas'. Cancer Imaging. 2009;9 (1): 1-11. doi:10.1102/1470-7330.2009.0001 - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 4. Hatano T, Yoshino Y, Kawashima Y et-al. Case of gonadoblastoma in a 9-year-old boy without physical abnormalities. Int. J. Urol. 1999;6 (3): 164-6. Pubmed citation
- 5. Scully RE. Gonadoblastoma. A review of 74 cases. Cancer. 1970;25 (6): 1340-56. Pubmed citation
Ultrasound - testicular and scrotal
- ultrasound (introduction)
testicular and scrotal ultrasound
unilateral testicular lesion
- testicular torsion
- testicular rupture
- germ cell tumours of the testis
- sex cord / stromal tumours of the testis
- testicular cyst
- testicular lymphoma
- bilateral testicular lesion
- paratesticular lesions
- tubular ectasia of the rete testis
- cystadenoma of the rete testis
- testicular sarcoidosis
- testicular tuberculosis
- spermatic cord
- fibrous pseudotumour of the scrotum
- scrotal leiomyosarcoma
- testicular adrenal rest tumours (TARTs)
- tunica vaginalis testis mesothelioma
- splenogonadal fusion
- unilateral testicular lesion