Bladder calculus

Bladder calculi occur either from migrated renal calculi or urinary stasis. Bladder calculi can be divided into primary and secondary stones:

  • primary: stones form de novo in the bladder
  • secondary: stones are either from renal calculi which have migrated down into the bladder, or from concretions on foreign material (e.g. urinary catheters)

Primary bladder calculi, in otherwise normal bladders, were previously common, but are now very uncommon in western nations 2. When encountered, the most common cause is due to urinary stasis, including from:

Family history is found in up to one third of idiopathic cases 2.

Bladder calculi may present with pain, infection, haematuria or may be asymptomatic.

Plain radiograph

Usually densely radiopaque, calculi may be single or multiple and are often large. Frequently lamination is observed internally, like the skin of an onion.

Ultrasound

Sonographically they are mobile, echogenic, and shadow distally. They may be associated with bladder wall thickening due to inflammation.

The earliest method of operative removal of bladder calculus was performed via the perineum with the patient in a supine position and the legs elevated - hence the term lithotomy position.

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Article Information

rID: 997
System: Urogenital
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Vesical calculus

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    Figure 1: bladder calculi
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    Figure 2: photograph - toy jacks
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    Bladder calculus
    Case 1
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    Case 2
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    AXR
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    Case 6: ultrasound
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     Case 7
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    Case 8
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    Case 9: huge calculus with lamination
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     Case 10
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    Case 11: jackstone
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    Case 12: multiple
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    A large well defi...
    Case 13: enormous
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    case 14: laminated
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