Supernumerary ribs occur most commonly as a cervical rib or arising from the lumbar vertebra. In extremely rare situations, there can be sacral, coccygeal, intrathoracic, or aberrant lumbar ribs 3.
- Turner syndrome
- cleidocranial dysplasia
- Aarskog syndrome
- trisomy 8 syndrome
- incontinentia pigmenti
- "fifteen dorsal vertebrae and rib pairs" (case reports)
Supernumerary ribs have been used as a marker for developmental toxicity bioassays in test animals 2.
- 1. Taybi H, Lachman R. Radiology of syndromes, metabolic disorders, and skeletal dysplasias. Mosby. ISBN:0815187092. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 2. Chernoff N, Rogers JM. Supernumerary ribs in developmental toxicity bioassays and in human populations: incidence and biological significance. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2004;7 (6): 437-49. doi:10.1080/10937400490512447 - Pubmed citation
- 3. Foley WJ, Whitehouse WM. Supernumerary thoracic ribs. Radiology. 1969;93 (6): 1333-4. doi:10.1148/93.6.1333 - Pubmed citation